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FDA Research

19:57 EST 10th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Aromatic Nitrogen Mustard-Based Autofluorescent Amphiphilic Brush Copolymer as pH-Responsive Drug Delivery Vehicle.

Delivery of clinically approved nonfluorescent drugs is facing challenges because it is difficult to monitor the intracellular drug delivery without incorporating any integrated fluorescence moiety into the drug carrier. The present investigation reports the synthesis of a pH-responsive autofluorescent polymeric nano-scaffold for the administration of nonfluorescent aromatic nitrogen mustard chlor...

Inhaled steroids with and without regular salmeterol for asthma: serious adverse events.

Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between use of beta₂-agonists and increased asthma mortality. Much debate has surrounded possible causal links for this association, and whether regular (daily) long-acting beta₂-agonists (LABAs) are safe, particularly when used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). This is an update of a Cochrane Review that now includes data from tw...

Sex differences in stress reactivity after intranasal oxytocin in recreational cannabis users.

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drugs and the changing legal, political and cultural climate will likely increase cannabis use further. One factor that may underlie the transition from recreational use to problematic use is stress. The hormone oxytocin (OXT) modulates stress and may have therapeutic efficacy for substance use disorders, but few studies have examined OXT in cannabis users....

Enhancing effects of acute exposure to cannabis smoke on working memory performance.

Numerous preclinical studies show that acute cannabinoid administration impairs cognitive performance. Almost all of this research has employed cannabinoid injections, however, whereas smoking is the preferred route of cannabis administration in humans. The goal of these experiments was to systematically determine how acute exposure to cannabis smoke affects working memory performance in a rat mod...

Anticancer activity modulation of an innovative solid formulation of extra virgin olive oil by cultured zeolite scaffolds.

This paper deals with the design and manufacture of pure and hybrid synthetic (Mixed Matrix Membranes, MMMs) zeolite scaffolds (containing various amount of zeolite crystals dispersed in a polymeric matrix) to obtain new biomaterials. These scaffolds can potentially be used in the field of translational medicine to obtain innovative results to address tumorigenesis mechanisms with the promotion of...

Body composition and sarcopenia: the next-generation of personalized oncology and pharmacology?

Body composition has gained increasing attention in oncology in recent years due to fact that sarcopenia has been revealed to be a strong prognostic indicator for survival across multiple stages and cancer types and a predictive factor for toxicity and surgery complications. Accumulating evidence over the last decade has unraveled the "pharmacology" of sarcopenia. Lean body mass may be more releva...

Polyethylene glycol-decorated doxorubicin/carboxymethyl chitosan/gold nanocomplex for reducing drug efflux in cancer cells and extending circulation in blood stream.

Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-decorated doxorubicin (Dox)/carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been developed for cancer therapy. CMC was used as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the fabrication of AuNPs and Dox was loaded onto AuNPs as a chemotherapeutic agent. Dox-loaded CMC-stabilized AuNPs (Dox/CMC-AuNPs) with a mean diameter of 104.0 nm, zeta potential of -48.32 mV...

Pharmaceutical cocrystals: from serendipity to design to application.

The field of pharmaceutical cocrystals has reached a tipping point, particularly because cocrystals can improve the physicochemical properties of drugs without compromising their therapeutic benefit. Accounts of cocrystal investigations in the literature started in earnest in 2003 and patent applications soon followed. The frequency of both has steadily accelerated, demonstrating an enhanced under...

A dual-sensitive mesoporous silica nanoparticle based drug carrier for cancer synergetic therapy.

A multifunctional envelope-type mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) was delicately designed for subcellular co-delivery of drug and therapeutic peptide to tumor cells. Firstly, a kind of cell apoptosis peptide (KLAKLAK) (KLA) was anchored on surface of MSN via disulfide bond to obtain MSN-SS-KLA. Subsequently, anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was loaded into the pores of MSN-SS-KLA...

Systemic thrombolysis in haemodynamically unstable pulmonary embolism: The earlier the better?

The temporal window for the administration of systemic thrombolysis (ST) in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) has not yet been clarified. We assessed the relationship between short-term cardiovascular (CV) mortality and time of ST administration.

Clinical Drug Response Prediction by Using a Lq Penalized Network-Constrained Logistic Regression Method.

One of the most important impacts of personalized medicine is the connection between patients' genotypes and their drug responses. Despite a series of studies exploring this relationship, the predictive ability of such analyses still needs to be strengthened.

miR-122 Targets X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein to Sensitize Oxaliplatin-Resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells to Oxaliplatin-Mediated Cytotoxicity.

Although oxaliplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat colorectal cancer (CRC), long-term administration usually induces acquired drug resistance during the course of treatment. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore novel strategies to improve the efficiency of cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of microRNA-122 (miR-122) on reversing ...

Fluoxetine reverses brain radiation and temozolomide-induced anxiety and spatial learning and memory defect in mice.

Radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy are commonly used in treatment of brain tumors, but they may also result in behavioral impairments such as anxiety and cognitive deficit. The present study sought to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on the behavioral impairments caused by radiation and temozolomide treatment. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single cranial radiation ...

The administration of high-mobility group box 1 fragment prevents deterioration of cardiac performance by enhancement of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell homing in the delta-sarcoglycan-deficient hamster.

We hypothesized that systemic administration of high-mobility group box 1 fragment attenuates the progression of myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in a hamster model of dilated cardiomyopathy by recruiting bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells thus causing enhancement of a self-regeneration system.

Familiar factors and illicit drug use among Brazilian adolescents: an analysis of the Brazilian National Survey of School Health (PeNSE, 2015).

Illicit drug use is related to individual characteristics; however, social and family environments seem to be associated with this consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the relationships between parents or guardians and Brazilian adolescents that use illicit drugs. This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Brazilian National Survey of School Health (PeNSE, 2...

The food environment of Brazilian public and private schools.

This study's aim was to characterize the food environment of Brazilian public and private schools. This was a national school-based cross-sectional study with 1,247 schools - among which 81.09% were public and 18.91% were private - in 124 Brazilian municipalities. The data originated from the Questionnaire on Aspects of the School Environment, used in the Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescent...

Delphi methodology in food safety management and foodborne disease prevention.

This review assesses the Delphi methodology as an expert consulting technique in the area of Public Health, particularly with a focus on food safety management and prevention of foodborne diseases, providing researchers with methodological information for its use. The data was compiled during January-August 2017 in the databases of Scopus, Medline, and Scielo. It was evidenced that, with the techn...

Association between food availability and mortality due to colorectal cancer in the Americas.

With the aim of describing the association between food availability and the mortality rate due to colorectal cancer in the countries of the Americas in 2010, data provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the Food and Agriculture Federation were analyzed in an ecological study. Great variability was observed except in caloric supply. Food availability was abundant for calori...

Considerations for an epidemiology of food and eating: A genealogy of nutritional studies in Ecuador.

This article analyzes two of the most important studies on nutrition that have been carried out in Ecuador in the last fifty years. The objective is to justify the need for an alimentary epidemiology capable of looking at the entire process of social reproduction and the food system as well as the expressions of each in different ways of life, overcoming a purely individual and biologistic perspec...

Drug Targetor: a web interface to investigate the human druggome for over 500 phenotypes.

Results from hundreds of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now freely available and offer a catalogue of the association between phenotypes across medicine with variants in the genome. With the aim of using this data to better understand therapeutic mechanisms, we have developed Drug Targetor, a web interface that allows the generation and exploration of drug-target networks of hundreds o...

Proceedings from the 2018 Association for Chemoreception Annual Meeting Symposium: Bariatric Surgery and Its Effects on Taste and Food Selection.

This article provides a summary of the topics discussed at the symposium titled Bariatric Surgery and Its Effects on Taste and Food Selection which was held at the Fortieth Annual Meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences. Bariatric surgery such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is currently one of the most effective treatments available for weight loss and Type-2 diabetes. For this ...

BASELINE STUDIES ON RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATION IN FOOD MATERIALS AND ESTIMATION OF THE COMMITTED RADIATION DOSE AROUND THE PHOSPHATE INDUSTRIAL AREA OF SOUTH TUNISIA.

The activity concentration of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides was determined in different vegetable samples, and foods derived from animal origin, from different locations in the four cities of Southern Tunisia, where large-scale phosphate industries are operating. The aim of the studies was to establish a baseline database on radionuclide concentration in food materials and to evaluate th...

Ghrelin Enhances Food Odor Conditioning in Healthy Humans: An fMRI Study.

Vulnerability to obesity includes eating in response to food cues, which acquire incentive value through conditioning. The conditioning process is largely subserved by dopamine, theorized to encode the discrepancy between expected and actual rewards known as the reward prediction error (RPE). Ghrelin is a gut-derived homeostatic hormone that triggers hunger and eating. Despite extensive evidence t...

Evaluation of in-line particle measurement with an SFT-probe as monitoring tool for process automation using a new time-based buffer approach.

The Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative published by the Food and Drug administration (FDA) describes PAT systems as important tools to optimize pharmaceutical processes in order to ensure the final product quality. Real-time particle size measurements provide a promising approach for process automation of fluid bed granulation processes. This work focuses on the introduction and evalua...

Food healthiness versus tastiness: Contrasting their impact on more and less successful healthy shoppers within a virtual food shopping task.

A virtual shopping task was employed to illuminate why women who intend to shop healthily are differentially successful in doing so. Female undergraduates (N = 68) performed a modified approach and avoidance task that employed food items differing in healthiness and tastiness, and yielded relative speed to select and reject food items in a stylised supermarket. Participants categorised a food ...

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