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FDA Research

08:12 EDT 18th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Challenges and opportunities related to the use of chitosan as food preservative.

Chitosan has attracted a growing attention as food preservative due to its versatility, non-toxicity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. This review aims to provide a critical appraisal of the limitations and opportunities of the use of chitosan as food preservative. Application of chitosan as food preservatives necessitates insights into mechanisms of chitosan-mediated cell death and injury,...

Bioequivalence of Sarpogrelate in Healthy Chinese Subjects Under Fasting and Fed Conditions: A 4-Way Replicate Crossover Investigation by a Reference-Scaled Average Bioequivalence Approach.

Sarpogrelate is widely used to treat peripheral vascular disorders. However, it has been demonstrated to have a poor pharmacokinetic (PK) profile and marked within-subject variability. Here, the bioequivalence of 2 formulations of sarpogrelate (100-mg tablets) was assessed by using the reference-scaled average bioequivalence (RSABE) method, and the PK parameters were quantified in healthy Chinese ...

Alternative Pharmaceutical Formulation for Oral Administration of Rifampicin.

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered an emergency global public health, mainly due to the TB-HIV co-infection, bacillus dormancy stage, and emergence of resistant strains. In addition, the therapeutic toxicity and its pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs may influence treatment non-compliance, low serum concentration of drugs, and, consequently, treatment failure. Strategies using nanotechnolo...

Comparison of Ocular Surface Mucin Expression After Topical Ophthalmic Drug Administration in Dry Eye-Induced Mouse Model.

To determine the mucinogenic effect of dry eye (DE) treatment drugs currently in use, we compared the levels of mucin production and inflammatory cytokine expression on the ocular surfaces using a DE-induced mice model.

Underutilization of the current clinical capacity to provide buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorders within the Veterans Health Administration.

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a critical concern among US veterans. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) recommends buprenorphine as a first-line treatment for OUD; however, only 35% of veterans with an OUD currently receive medication treatment. Practical barriers, including the capacity of providers to prescribe, may affect delivery of buprenorphine. We examined the current state of buprenorp...

Death after diagnosis of non-communicable disease comorbid conditions, stratified by injection drug use.

Describe all-cause mortality associated with history of injection drug use (IDU) after a validated diagnosis of four non-communicable disease (NCD) diagnoses: 1) end-stage liver disease (ESLD); 2) end-stage renal disease (ESRD); 3) cancer; or 4) myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke.

Effects of short-term cash and food incentives on food insecurity and nutrition among HIV-infected adults in Tanzania: a randomized trial.

Food insecurity (FI) impedes antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We previously demonstrated that short-term cash and food incentives increased ART possession and retention in HIV services in Tanzania. To elucidate potential pathways that led to these achievements, we examined whether incentives also improved FI.

Accelerating the Drug Delivery Pipeline for Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis-Knowledge Gaps and Research Opportunities: Overview Summary of a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Workshop.

A workshop was sponsored by the Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, on July 25, 2018, in Pittsburgh, Penn. The workshop was designed to bring together a multidisciplinary group of experts to accelerate the development of therapeutics for clinical application in inflammatory diseases of the ex...

Multiple non-climatic drivers of food insecurity reinforce climate change maladaptation trajectories among Peruvian Indigenous Shawi in the Amazon.

Climate change is affecting food systems globally, with implications for food security, nutrition, and the health of human populations. There are limited data characterizing the current and future consequences of climate change on local food security for populations already experiencing poor nutritional indicators. Indigenous Amazonian populations have a high reported prevalence of nutritional def...

Effect of Gabapentin vs Pregabalin on Pain Intensity in Adults WIth Chronic Sciatica: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Optimal pharmacologic treatment for chronic sciatica (CS) is currently unclear. While gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGB) are both used to treat CS, equipoise exists. Nevertheless, pharmaceutical regulation authorities typically subsidize one drug over the other. This hinders interchange wherever the favored drug is either ineffective or ill-tolerated.

Pleistocene dental calculus: Recovering information on Paleolithic food items, medicines, paleoenvironment and microbes.

Dental calculus is now widely used to recover information on items ingested in the past. It is particularly valuable in the earlier Paleolithic, where recovered data may represent the only evidence for plant use. Several recovery methods are used and each one produces different results. Biomolecular markers and genetic material recovered from dental calculus is providing new data on identifiable d...

Hypophagic effects of insulin is mediated via NPY1/NPY2 receptors in broiler cockerels.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a mediatory role on cerebral insulin function in maintaining energy balance. The current study was deigned to determine the role of insulin in food intake and its interaction with NPY receptors in 8 experiments of broiler cockerels,(each with 4 treatment groups except 8). Chickens received control solution, 2.5, 5, and 10 ng of insulin in experiment 1 and control solutio...

Selenium levels in whole blood - The borderline low analysis.

Selenium is a very important micronutrient. Food is the major source for selenium uptake and the average blood levels is seen to be highly affected by dietary habits as selenium levels in food naturally depend on the kind of soil they are grown upon and in processed foods its levels depend on fortification. Deficiency of this vital nutriment needs to be assessed to understand deficiency prevalence...

Activation of catalase via co-administration of aspirin and pioglitazone: Experimental and MLSD simulation approaches.

Aspirin (ASP) and pioglitazone (PGL) are the most common drugs that are widely used by diabetic patients to control the blood sugar and hinder cardiovascular diseases. The interaction between PGL and ASP is one of the important medical issues to clarify the safety of co-administration of these drugs. In the present study, the effect of co-administered ASP with PGL was investigated on the structure...

Protocatechuic acid-mediated DJ-1/PARK7 activation followed by PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway activation as a novel mechanism for protection against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal mucosa.

Oxidative stress contributes to the progression of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastrointestinal (GI) cell apoptosis. In our previous study, we reported that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a protective role against ketoprofen-induced GI mucosal oxidative injury. Recent reports suggest that Nrf2 could exhibit antioxidative and antiapoptosis response...

ORAL FOOD CHALLENGE FAILURES AMONG FOODS RESTRICTED DUE TO ATOPIC DERMATITIS.

Recent studies have suggested that removing foods from the diet to manage atopic dermatitis (AD), based on positive allergy tests, may lead to immediate allergic reactions on reintroduction of that food.

Gabapentin-induced eczematous drug eruption of the bilateral foot.

Drug eruptions represent a wide spectrum of cutaneous reactions to various pharmaceutical agents. Given their complexity and varied patterns of presentation, these phenomena are the subject of study of many fields of medicine. Gabapentin is a widely prescribed medication, with numerous drug reactions previously reported. We present what we believe to be a unique presentation of a gabapentin-induce...

The oncolytic virus H101 combined with GNAQ siRNA-mediated knockdown reduces uveal melanoma cell viability.

Uveal melanoma (UM) is a severe human malignancy with a high mortality rate, as well as high metastasis and recurrence potential. The active mutation of G protein subunit alpha q (GNAQ) or G protein subunit alpha 11 (GNA11) is a major trigger for UM. Oncolytic adenovirus H101 (H101) is the first oncolytic virus approved for clinical applications in cancer therapy by the China Food and Drug Adminis...

Peracetylation as a strategy to improve oleuropein stability and its affinity to fatty foods.

The biological activities of oleuropein (Ole) and its metabolites have been extensively documented and show a spectrum of highly interesting bioactivities, which demonstrates the potential of oleuropein for inclusion in food and beverages. In the present work, acetylated oleuropein (OleAc), a safe, biologically active semi-synthetic stable derivative of oleuropein, has been proposed as a facile al...

Autism spectrum disorder and food neophobia: clinical and subclinical links.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been linked with eating- and feeding-related atypicalities, including food neophobia (FN) (refusal to try unfamiliar foods), since its earliest description. Nevertheless, whether associations between ASD traits and FN extend subclinically into the broader population of children and their potential additive health impacts remains unexplored.

Cross-sectional whole-genome sequencing and epidemiological study of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China.

The increase in MDR-TB severely hampers TB prevention and control in China, a country with the second highest MDR-TB burden globally. The first nationwide drug-resistant TB surveillance program provides an opportunity to comprehensively investigate the epidemiological/drug-resistance characteristics, potential drug-resistance mutations, and effective population changes of Chinese MDR-TB.

Immunodiagnostic potential of Wuchereria bancrofti L1 antigen-based filarial immunoglobulin G4 detection assay.

After mass drug administration to eliminate human lymphatic filariasis, there is a need for surveillance to detect the measurable endpoint of the program.

An Agent-Based Model for Pathogen Persistence and Cross-Contamination Dynamics in a Food Facility.

We used an agent-based modeling (ABM) framework and developed a mathematical model to explain the complex dynamics of microbial persistence and spread within a food facility and to aid risk managers in identifying effective mitigation options. The model explicitly considered personal hygiene practices by food handlers as well as their activities and simulated a spatially explicit dynamic system re...

Lysophosphatidic acid and its receptor LPA mediate carrageenan induced inflammatory pain in mice.

Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPA) is one of six G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Previous studies have shown that LPA signaling plays a major role in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. It has also been shown that the inhibition of phospholipase A, an enzyme upstream of LPA synthesis, reduces mechanical allodynia in experi...

The effect of the anti-diabetic drug metformin on behavioral manifestations associated with ovariectomy in mice.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic drug metformin (Met) effects on the anxiety and cognitive impairment in ovariectomized mice. Thirty-two female adult mice were distributed into four groups: control, sham ovariectomy, ovariectomy + Met 7 mg/kg and ovariectomy + Met 15 mg/kg. The vaginal cytology was used to confirm the ovariectomy surgery. Anxiety was monitored us...

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