Advertisement

Topics

Topiramate Tablets | TOPIRAMATE

05:56 EDT 27th August 2014 | BioPortfolio
Note: While we endeavour to keep our records up-to-date one should not rely on these details being accurate without first consulting a professional. Click here to read our full medical disclaimer.

Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide. Topiramate tablets are available as 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg circular tablets for oral administration.

Topiramate is a white crystalline powder with a bitter taste. Topiramate USP is most soluble in alkaline solutions containing sodium hydroxide or sodium phosphate and having a pH of 9 to 10. It is freely soluble in acetone, chloroform, dimethylsulfoxide, and ethanol. The solubility in water is 9.8 mg/mL. Its saturated solution has a pH of 6.3. Topiramate has the molecular formula CHNOS and a molecular weight of 339.37. Topiramate is designated chemically as 2,3:4,5-Di-O-isopropylidene-β-D-fructopyranose sulfamate and has the following structural formula:

Topiramate tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, magnesium stearate, purified water, polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol and talc.

In addition, individual tablets contain:

50 mg tablets: iron oxide yellow100 mg tablets: iron oxide yellow, and D&C Yellow # 10 Aluminum Lake200 mg tablets: iron oxide red, lecithin (soya), and iron oxide black

IMAGE topiramate-1.jpg

The precise mechanisms by which topiramate exerts its anticonvulsant effects are unknown; however, preclinical studies have revealed four properties that may contribute to topiramate's efficacy for epilepsy. Electrophysiological and biochemical evidence suggests that topiramate, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, blocks voltage-dependent sodium channels, augments the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyrate at some subtypes of the GABA-A receptor, antagonizes the AMPA/kainate subtype of the glutamate receptor, and inhibits the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, particularly isozymes II and IV.

Topiramate has anticonvulsant activity in rat and mouse maximal electroshock seizure (MES) tests. Topiramate is only weakly effective in blocking clonic seizures induced by the GABAA receptor antagonist, pentylenetetrazole. Topiramate is also effective in rodent models of epilepsy, which include tonic and absence-like seizures in the spontaneous epileptic rat (SER) and tonic and clonic seizures induced in rats by kindling of the amygdala or by global ischemia.

The sprinkle formulation is bioequivalent to the immediate release tablet formulation and, therefore, may be substituted as a therapeutic equivalent.

Absorption of topiramate is rapid, with peak plasma concentrations occurring at approximately 2 hours following a 400 mg oral dose. The relative bioavailability of topiramate from the tablet formulation is about 80% compared to a solution. The bioavailability of topiramate is not affected by food.

The pharmacokinetics of topiramate are linear with dose proportional increases in plasma concentration over the dose range studied (200 to 800 mg/day). The mean plasma elimination half-life is 21 hours after single or multiple doses. Steady state is thus reached in about 4 days in patients with normal renal function. Topiramate is 15 to 41% bound to human plasma proteins over the blood concentration range of 0.5 to 250 mcg/mL. The fraction bound decreased as blood concentration increased.

Carbamazepine and phenytoin do not alter the binding of topiramate. Sodium valproate, at 500 mcg/mL (a concentration 5 to 10 times higher than considered therapeutic for valproate) decreased the protein binding of topiramate from 23% to 13%. Topiramate does not influence the binding of sodium valproate.

Topiramate is not extensively metabolized and is primarily eliminated unchanged in the urine (approximately 70% of an administered dose). Six metabolites have been identified in humans, none of which constitutes more than 5% of an administered dose. The metabolites are formed via hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and glucuronidation. There is evidence of renal tubular reabsorption of topiramate. In rats, given probenecid to inhibit tubular reabsorption, along with topiramate, a significant increase in renal clearance of topiramate was observed. This interaction has not been evaluated in humans. Overall, oral plasma clearance (CL/F) is approximately 20 to 30 mL/min in humans following oral administration.

(see also Drug Interactions):

Antiepileptic Drugs

Potential interactions between topiramate and standard AEDs were assessed in controlled clinical pharmacokinetic studies in patients with epilepsy. The effect of these interactions on mean plasma AUCs are summarized under PRECAUTIONS (Table 4).

The clearance of topiramate was reduced by 42% in moderately renally impaired (creatinine clearance 30 to 69 mL/min/1.73m) and by 54% in severely renally impaired subjects (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min/1.73m) compared to normal renal function subjects (creatinine clearance >70 mL/min/1.73m). Since topiramate is presumed to undergo significant tubular reabsorption, it is uncertain whether this experience can be generalized to all situations of renal impairment. It is conceivable that some forms of renal disease could differentially affect glomerular filtration rate and tubular reabsorption resulting in a clearance of topiramate not predicted by creatinine clearance. In general, however, use of one-half the usual starting and maintenance dose is recommended in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment (see PRECAUTIONS: Adjustment of Dose in Renal Failure and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION) .

Topiramate is cleared by hemodialysis. Using a high efficiency, counterflow, single pass-dialysate hemodialysis procedure, topiramate dialysis clearance was 120 mL/min with blood flow through the dialyzer at 400 mL/min. This high clearance (compared to 20 to 30 mL/min total oral clearance in healthy adults) will remove a clinically significant amount of topiramate from the patient over the hemodialysis treatment period. Therefore, a supplemental dose may be required (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION) .

In hepatically impaired subjects, the clearance of topiramate may be decreased; the mechanism underlying the decrease is not well understood.

The pharmacokinetics of topiramate in elderly subjects (65 to 85 years of age, N=16) were evaluated in a controlled clinical study. The elderly subject population had reduced renal function [creatinine clearance (-20%)] compared to young adults. Following a single oral 100 mg dose, maximum plasma concentration for elderly and young adults was achieved at approximately 1 to 2 hours. Reflecting the primary renal elimination of topiramate, topiramate plasma and renal clearance were reduced 21% and 19%, respectively, in elderly subjects, compared to young adults. Similarly, topiramate half-life was longer (13%) in the elderly. Reduced topiramate clearance resulted in slightly higher maximum plasma concentration (23%) and AUC (25%) in elderly subjects than observed in young adults. Topiramate clearance is decreased in the elderly only to the extent that renal function is reduced. As recommended for all patients, dosage adjustment may be indicated in the elderly patient when impaired renal function (creatinine clearance rate ≤70 mL/min/1.73 m) is evident. It may be useful to monitor renal function in the elderly patient (see Special Populations: Renal Impairment , PRECAUTIONS: Adjustment of Dose in Renal Failure and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).

Clearance of topiramate in adults was not affected by gender or race.

Pharmacokinetics of topiramate were evaluated in patients ages 4 to 17 years receiving one or two other antiepileptic drugs. Pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained after one week at doses of 1, 3, and 9 mg/kg/day. Clearance was independent of dose.

Pediatric patients have a 50% higher clearance and consequently shorter elimination half-life than adults. Consequently, the plasma concentration for the same mg/kg dose may be lower in pediatric patients compared to adults. As in adults, hepatic enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs decrease the steady state plasma concentrations of topiramate.

The studies described in the following sections were conducted using topiramate tablets.

The effectiveness of topiramate as initial monotherapy in adults and children 10 years of age and older with partial onset or primary generalized seizures was established in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial.

The trial was conducted in 487 patients diagnosed with epilepsy (6 to 83 years of age) who had 1 or 2 well-documented seizures during the 3-month retrospective baseline phase who then entered the study and received topiramate 25 mg/day for 7 days in an open-label fashion. Forty-nine percent of subjects had no prior AED treatment and 17% had a diagnosis of epilepsy for greater than 24 months. Any AED therapy used for temporary or emergency purposes was discontinued prior to randomization. In the double-blind phase, 470 patients were randomized to titrate up to 50 mg/day or 400 mg/day. If the target dose could not be achieved, patients were maintained on the maximum tolerated dose. Fifty eight percent of patients achieved the maximal dose of 400 mg/day for ≥ 2 weeks, and patients who did not tolerate 150 mg/day were discontinued. The primary efficacy assessment was a between group comparison of time to first seizure during the double-blind phase. Comparison of the Kaplan-Meier survival curves of time to first seizure favored the topiramate 400 mg/day group over the topiramate 50 mg/day group (p=0.0002, log rank test; Figure 1). The treatment effects with respect to time to first seizure were consistent across various patient subgroups defined by age, sex, geographic region, baseline body weight, baseline seizure type, time since diagnosis, and baseline AED use.

IMAGE topiramate-2.jpg

The effectiveness of topiramate as an adjunctive treatment for adults with partial onset seizures was established in six multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, two comparing several dosages of topiramate and placebo and four comparing a single dosage with placebo, in patients with a history of partial onset seizures, with or without secondarily generalized seizures.

Patients in these studies were permitted a maximum of two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in addition to topiramate tablets or placebo. In each study, patients were stabilized on optimum dosages of their concomitant AEDs during baseline phase lasting between 4 and 12 weeks. Patients who experienced a prespecified minimum number of partial onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization, during the baseline phase (12 seizures for 12-week baseline, 8 for 8-week baseline, or 3 for 4-week baseline) were randomly assigned to placebo or a specified dose of topiramate tablets in addition to their other AEDs.

Following randomization, patients began the double-blind phase of treatment. In five of the six studies, patients received active drug beginning at 100 mg per day; the dose was then increased by 100 mg or 200 mg/day increments weekly or every other week until the assigned dose was reached, unless intolerance prevented increases. In the sixth study (119), the 25 or 50 mg/day initial doses of topiramate were followed by respective weekly increments of 25 or 50 mg/day until the target dose of 200 mg/day was reached. After titration, patients entered a 4, 8, or 12-week stabilization period. The numbers of patients randomized to each dose, and the actual mean and median doses in the stabilization period are shown in Table 1.

The effectiveness of topiramate as an adjunctive treatment for pediatric patients ages 2 to 16 years with partial onset seizures was established in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comparing topiramate and placebo in patients with a history of partial onset seizures, with or without secondarily generalized seizures.

Patients in this study were permitted a maximum of two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in addition to topiramate tablets or placebo. In this study, patients were stabilized on optimum dosages of their concomitant AEDs during an 8-week baseline phase. Patients who experienced at least six partial onset seizures, with or without secondarily generalized seizures, during the baseline phase were randomly assigned to placebo or topiramate tablets in addition to their other AEDs.

Following randomization, patients began the double-blind phase of treatment. Patients received active drug beginning at 25 or 50 mg per day; the dose was then increased by 25 mg to 150 mg/day increments every other week until the assigned dosage of 125, 175, 225, or 400 mg/day based on patients' weight to approximate a dosage of 6 mg/kg per day was reached, unless intolerance prevented increases. After titration, patients entered an 8-week stabilization period.

The effectiveness of topiramate as an adjunctive treatment for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients 2 years old and older was established in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comparing a single dosage of topiramate and placebo.

Patients in this study were permitted a maximum of two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in addition to topiramate or placebo. Patients were stabilized on optimum dosages of their concomitant AEDs during an 8-week baseline phase. Patients who experienced at least three primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures during the baseline phase were randomly assigned to placebo or topiramate in addition to their other AEDs.

Following randomization, patients began the double-blind phase of treatment. Patients received active drug beginning at 50 mg per day for four weeks; the dose was then increased by 50 mg to 150 mg/day increments every other week until the assigned dose of 175, 225, or 400 mg/day based on patients' body weight to approximate a dosage of 6 mg/kg per day was reached, unless intolerance prevented increases. After titration, patients entered a 12-week stabilization period.

The effectiveness of topiramate as an adjunctive treatment for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome was established in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing a single dosage of topiramate with placebo in patients 2 years of age and older.

Patients in this study were permitted a maximum of two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in addition to topiramate or placebo. Patients who were experiencing at least 60 seizures per month before study entry were stabilized on optimum dosages of their concomitant AEDs during a 4-week baseline phase. Following baseline, patients were randomly assigned to placebo or topiramate in addition to their other AEDs. Active drug was titrated beginning at 1 mg/kg per day for a week; the dose was then increased to 3 mg/kg per day for one week then to 6 mg/kg per day. After titration, patients entered an 8-week stabilization period. The primary measures of effectiveness were the percent reduction in drop attacks and a parental global rating of seizure severity.

In all add-on trials, the reduction in seizure rate from baseline during the entire double-blind phase was measured. The median percent reductions in seizure rates and the responder rates (fraction of patients with at least a 50% reduction) by treatment group for each study are shown below in Table 2. As described above, a global improvement in seizure severity was also assessed in the Lennox-Gastaut trial.

Subset analyses of the antiepileptic efficacy of topiramate tablets in these studies showed no differences as a function of gender, race, age, baseline seizure rate, or concomitant AED.

Table 1: Topiramate Dose Summary During the Stabilization Periods of Each of Six Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Add-On Trials in Adults with Partial Onset Seizuresb
     Target Topiramate Dosage (mg/day)
 Protocol  Stabilization Dose  Placeboa  200  400  600  800  1,000
  a Placebo dosages are given as the number of tablets. Placebo target dosages were as follows: Protocol Y1, 4 tablets/day; Protocols YD and Y2, 6 tablets/day; Protocol Y3 and 119, 8 tablets/day; Protocol YE, 10 tablets/day.
  b Dose-response studies were not conducted for other indications or pediatric partial onset seizures.
             
 YD  N  42  42  40  41  --  --
    Mean Dose  5.9  200  390  556  --  --
    Median Dose  6.0  200  400  600  --  --
             
 YE  N  44  --  --  40  45  40
    Mean Dose  9.7  --  --  544  739  796
    Median Dose  10.0  --  --  600  800  1,000
             
 Y1  N  23  --  19  --  --  --
    Mean Dose  3.8  --  395  --  --  --
    Median Dose  4.0  --  400  --  --  --
             
 Y2  N  30  --  --  28  --  --
    Mean Dose  5.7  --  --  522  --  --
    Median Dose  6.0  --  --  600  --  --
             
 Y3  N  28  --  --  --  25  --
    Mean Dose  7.9  --  --  --  568  --
    Median Dose  8.0  --  --  --  600  --
             
 119 N  90  157  --  --  --  --
    Mean Dose  8  200  --  --  --  --
    Median Dose  8  200  --  --  --  --
Table 2: Efficacy Results in Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Add-On Epilepsy Trials
     Target Topiramate Dosage (mg/day)
 Protocol  Efficacy Results  Placebo  200  400  600  800  1,000  ≈6
mg/kg/day*
 Comparisons with placebo: a p=0.080; b p<0.010; c p<0.001; d p<0.050; e p=0.065; f p<0.005;g p=0.071;
  h Median % reduction and % responders are reported for PGTC Seizures;
  i Median % reduction and % responders for drop attacks, i.e., tonic or atonic seizures;
  j Percent of subjects who were minimally, much, or very much improved from baseline
 * For Protocols YP and YTC, protocol-specified target dosages (<9.3 mg/kg/day) were assigned based on subject's weight to approximate a dosage of 6 mg/kg per day; these dosages corresponded to mg/day dosages of 125, 175, 225, and 400 mg/day.
 Partial Onset Seizures              
 Studies in Adults              
 YD  N  45  45  45  46  --  --  --
 Median % Reduction  11.6  27.2a  47.5b  44.7c  --  --  --
 % Responders  18  24  44d  46d  --  --  --
 YE  N  47  --  --  48  48  47  --
 Median % Reduction  1.7  --  --  40.8c  41.0c  36.0c  --
 % Responders  9  --  --  40c  41c  36d  --
 Y1  N  24  --  23  --  --  --  --
 Median % Reduction  1.1  --  40.7e  --  --  --  --
 % Responders  8  --  35d  --  --  --  --
 Y2  N  30  --  --  30  --  --  --
 Median % Reduction  -12.2  --  --  46.4f  --  --  --
 % Responders  10  --  --  47c  --  --  --
 Y3  N  28  --  --  --  28  --  --
 Median % Reduction  -20.6  --  --  --  24.3c  --  --
 % Responders  0  --  --  --  43c  --  --
 119 N  91  168  --  --  --  --  --
 Median % Reduction  20.0  44.2c  --  --  --  --  --
 % Responders  24  45c  --  --  --  --  --
 Studies in Pediatric Patients              
 YP  N  45  --  --  --  --  --  41
 Median % Reduction  10.5  --  --  --  --  --  33.1d
 % Responders  20  --  --  --  --  --  39
 Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonich              
 YTC  N  40  --  --  --  --  --  39
 Median % Reduction  9.0  --  --  --  --  --  56.7d
 % Responders  20  --  --  --  --  --  56c
 Lennox-Gastaut Syndromei              
 YL  N  49  --  --  --  --  --  46
 Median % Reduction  -5.1  --  --  --  --  --  14.8d
 % Responders  14  --  --  --  --  --  28g
 Improvement in Seizure Severityj  28  --  --  --  --  --  52d

Topiramate tablets are indicated as initial monotherapy in patients 10 years of age and older with partial onset or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

Effectiveness was demonstrated in a controlled trial in patients with epilepsy who had no more than 2 seizures in the 3 months prior to enrollment. Safety and effectiveness in patients who were converted to monotherapy from a previous regimen of other anticonvulsant drugs have not been established in controlled trials.

Topiramate tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy for adults and pediatric patients ages 2 to 16 years with partial onset seizures, or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and in patients 2 years of age and older with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Topiramate tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any component of this product.

A syndrome consisting of acute myopia associated with secondary angle closure glaucoma has been reported in patients receiving topiramate. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity and/or ocular pain. Ophthalmologic findings can include myopia, anterior chamber shallowing, ocular hyperemia (redness) and increased intraocular pressure. Mydriasis may or may not be present. This syndrome may be associated with supraciliary effusion resulting in anterior displacement of the lens and iris, with secondary angle closure glaucoma. Symptoms typically occur within 1 month of initiating topiramate therapy. In contrast to primary narrow angle glaucoma, which is rare under 40 years of age, secondary angle closure glaucoma associated with topiramate has been reported in pediatric patients as well as adults. The primary treatment to reverse symptoms is discontinuation of topiramate as rapidly as possible, according to the judgment of the treating physician. Other measures, in conjunction with discontinuation of topiramate, may be helpful.

Elevated intraocular pressure of any etiology, if left untreated, can lead to serious sequelae including permanent vision loss.

Oligohidrosis (decreased sweating), infrequently resulting in hospitalization, has been reported in association with topiramate use. Decreased sweating and an elevation in body temperature above normal characterized these cases. Some of the cases were reported after exposure to elevated environmental temperatures.

The majority of the reports have been in children. Patients, especially pediatric patients, treated with topiramate should be monitored closely for evidence of decreased sweating and increased body temperature, especially in hot weather. Caution should be used when topiramate is prescribed with other drugs that predispose patients to heat-related disorders; these drugs include, but are not limited to, other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and drugs with anticholinergic activity.

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including topiramate, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.

Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.

The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.

The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5 to 100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed.

Table 3 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.

The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.

Anyone considering prescribing topiramate or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.

Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers.

Table 3 Risk by Indication for Antiepileptic Drugs in the Pooled Analysis
Indication Placebo Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients Relative Risk: Incidence of Events in Drug Patients/Incidence in Placebo Patients Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients
 Epilepsy  1.0  3.4  3.5  2.4
 Psychiatric  5.7 Manufacturer

Southeast Medical Solutions RX LLC

Active Ingredients

Source

Drugs and Medications [44 Associated Drugs and Medications listed on BioPortfolio]

Topiramate [REMEDYREPACK INC. ]

HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION These highlights do not include all the information needed to use topiramate tablets safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for topiramate table...

Topiramate [PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use topiramate tablets safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for topiramate tablets Topiramate Tablets, USP Rx Only Ini...

Topiramate [Torrent Pharmaceuticals Limited]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use topiramate tablets safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for topiramate tablets Topiramate Tablets, USP Rx Only Ini...

Topiramate [STAT Rx USA LLC]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use topiramate tablets safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for topiramate tablets Topiramate Tablets, USP Rx Only Ini...

Topamax [Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.]

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use TOPAMAX safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for TOPAMAX TOPAMAX (topiramate) TABLETS for oral use TOPAMAX (topira...

Clinical Trials [131 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Topiramate as Adjunctive Therapy in Infants 1-24 Months for the Control of Partial Onset Seizures

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tolerability, safety and efficacy of topiramate in infants with refractory partial onset seizures (POS).

A Study to Evaluate the Dosing, Effectiveness and Safety of Topiramate for the Treatment of Epilepsy

The purpose of this study is to identify patient characteristics (such as baseline seizure frequency) that may predict effective doses of topiramate using just that one drug (monotherapy) ...

Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Multiple Formulations of Topiramate and Phentermine in Obese Adults

The primary objective of this study is to describe the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic profiles of two novel formulations of topiramate and commercially available immediate relea...

Topiramate to Reduce Cocaine Dependence

Cocaine addiction is a serious health problem with no available medical treatment for preventing relapse. Topiramate, a medication which lowers dopamine levels, may have the ability to dim...

Topiramate Treatment of Problem Drinkers

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topiramate in reducing drinking and heavy drinking frequency in problem drinkers. We hypothesize that at a dosage of up...

PubMed Articles [25 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Concomitant Use of Topiramate Inducing Neutropenia in a Schizophrenic Male Stabilized on Clozapine.

This is a case of a 23-year-old African American male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia that developed neutropenia on a clozapine-topiramate therapy. Clozapine had well addressed the patient's ...

Ability of Food/Drink to Reduce the Bitterness Intensity of Topiramate as Determined by Taste Sensor Analysis.

The purpose of this study was to determine which foods and/or drinks are capable of reducing the bitterness of topiramate when consumed together with the medicine. The inhibitory effects of foods/drin...

Topiramate for acute affective episodes in bipolar disorder in adults.

Bipolar disorder is a common recurrent illness with high levels of chronicity. Previous trials have suggested that the anticonvulsant topiramate may be efficacious in bipolar disorder. This is an upda...

A randomized, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept trial of adjunctive topiramate for alcohol use disorders in bipolar disorder.

Topiramate is effective for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among non-psychiatric patients. We examined topiramate for treating comorbid AUDs in bipolar disorder (BD).

Balancing risk and benefit in heavy drinkers treated with topiramate: implications for personalized care.

Despite topiramate's ability to reduce heavy drinking, its adverse effects may limit its clinical utility.

Quick Search
Advertisement
 

Relevant Topics

Nutrition
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...

Epilepsy
Epilepsy is defined as a disorder of brain function characterized by recurrent seizures that have a sudden onset.  (Oxford Medical Dictionary).  A seizure is caused by a sudden burst of excess electrical activity in the brain, causing a tempora...

Enzymes
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...


Drugs and Medication Quicklinks


Searches Linking to this Drug Record