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This study investigated the influence of two types of biochars on the bioavailability of two soil-applied insecticides (chlorpyrifos and fipronil) to Chinese chives ( Allium tuberosum ) and dissipation of the pesticides in the biochar-amended soils. The biochars (BC450 and BC850) prepared from the burning of cotton ( Gossypium spp.) straw chips at two different temperatures (450 and 850 degrees C) were thoroughly mixed into a soil to achieve 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1% by soil dry weight. Chinese chives were grown for 5 weeks in the biochar-amended soils spiked with 50 mg kg(-1) of each pesticide. The loss of both pesticides in soils decreased significantly with increasing amounts of the biochars in the soil. After 35 days of incubation, 58-68% of the pesticides was lost from the control soil, whereas in the soil amended with 1.0% BC850 only 34% of chlorpyrifos and 32% of fipronil were dissipated. More losses of the pesticides were found in the soils with plants due to plant uptake and enhanced microbial degradation. Despite greater persistence of the two pesticide residues in the biochar-amended soils, plant uptake of the two pesticides from the amended soils decreased markedly with increasing biochar content in the soil. With the amendment of 1% of BC850 in the soil, the total chlorpyrifos and fipronil residues in plant biomass decreased to 19 and 48% of those in the control treatment, respectively. Thus, biochar BC850 was found to be effective in reducing the bioavailability of both pesticides from the soil. Biochar could be applied to sequester pesticide residues in contaminated soils and to reduce plant uptake.
State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
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A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)