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Cerebellar mutism is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. This article reviews current status with respect to incidence, anatomical substrate, pathophysiology, risk factors, surgical considerations, treatment options, prognosis and prevention.
We reviewed all peer-reviewed English publications on cerebellar mutism between the years of 1985 and 2009. The majority were found by searching for 'cerebellar mutism' and 'posterior fossa syndrome' in PubMed. Additional cases were identified by cross-checking reference lists.
The overall incidence of postoperative cerebellar mutism is 11-29%, and patients with medulloblastomas and/or brainstem invasion are at a greater risk of developing it than those with other kinds of tumors and/or without brainstem invasion. Permanent sequelae in the form of both motor- and non-motor-related speech deficits are common, especially when the right cerebellar hemisphere is involved. The mutism is caused by bilateral pertubation of the dentate nuclei and their efferent pathways, which emphasizes the need to explore surgical methods that spare these structures. The pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed onset and resolution of cerebellar mutism are not clear, but axonal damage, edema, perfusional defects and metabolic disturbances may be involved.
The incidence of cerebellar mutism is well documented in children with medulloblastoma, but precise figures for those with astrocytoma and ependymoma are lacking. Further anatomical, functional imaging and neuropsychological studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms in order to define preventive measures during surgery. Randomized, controlled trials of the effects of different medication and post-operative speech therapy are necessary for improving treatment.
Department of Pediatrics, The University Hospital Rigshospitalet, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
An article or book published after examination of published material on a subject. It may be comprehensive to various degrees and the time range of material scrutinized may be broad or narrow, but the reviews most often desired are reviews of the current literature. The textual material examined may be equally broad and can encompass, in medicine specifically, clinical material as well as experimental research or case reports. State-of-the-art reviews tend to address more current matters. A review of the literature must be differentiated from HISTORICAL ARTICLE on the same subject, but a review of historical literature is also within the scope of this publication type.
The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
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Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...