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Cerebellar mutism is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. This article reviews current status with respect to incidence, anatomical substrate, pathophysiology, risk factors, surgical considerations, treatment options, prognosis and prevention.
We reviewed all peer-reviewed English publications on cerebellar mutism between the years of 1985 and 2009. The majority were found by searching for 'cerebellar mutism' and 'posterior fossa syndrome' in PubMed. Additional cases were identified by cross-checking reference lists.
The overall incidence of postoperative cerebellar mutism is 11-29%, and patients with medulloblastomas and/or brainstem invasion are at a greater risk of developing it than those with other kinds of tumors and/or without brainstem invasion. Permanent sequelae in the form of both motor- and non-motor-related speech deficits are common, especially when the right cerebellar hemisphere is involved. The mutism is caused by bilateral pertubation of the dentate nuclei and their efferent pathways, which emphasizes the need to explore surgical methods that spare these structures. The pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed onset and resolution of cerebellar mutism are not clear, but axonal damage, edema, perfusional defects and metabolic disturbances may be involved.
The incidence of cerebellar mutism is well documented in children with medulloblastoma, but precise figures for those with astrocytoma and ependymoma are lacking. Further anatomical, functional imaging and neuropsychological studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms in order to define preventive measures during surgery. Randomized, controlled trials of the effects of different medication and post-operative speech therapy are necessary for improving treatment.
Department of Pediatrics, The University Hospital Rigshospitalet, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Cerebellar mutism is a common finding after resection of cerebellar tumors, especially in children. It has been reported to occur in up to 39% of posterior fossa tumor resections. Once thought to be a...
Ruptured Distal Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (PICA) Aneurysms Associated With Cerebellar Arterial Venous Malformations (AVMs): A Case Series and Review of the Literature Demonstrating the Need For Angiographic Evaluation and Feasibility of Endovascular Treatment.
The characteristics, diagnosis and preferred management strategies for distal PICA aneurysms associated with cerebellar AVMs are poorly understood. We present a case series with attention to aneurysm ...
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are rare disorders associated with malignant tumours, which are triggered by autoimmune reactions. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is the PNS t...
Cerebellar medulloblastomas (MBs) are one of the most common posterior fossa tumors in children but rarely occur in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Only 39 cases of CPA MBs were reported in the lite...
Aneurysms arising from the distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are very rare. When the parent artery is an AICA-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) variant, occlusion of the arte...
The purpose of this pilot study is to explore the outcome of a manual based treatment for children with Selective Mutism
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality-base training for cerebellar ataxia.
This study is to assess the efficacy of a brief, 11-week, manualized Taming Sneaky Fears for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and/or Selective Mutism (SM) child and parent group Cognitive Beh...
The purpose of this study is to investigate if individuals with a cannabis use disorder have an impaired cerebellar function by assessing possible alterations to their implicit adaptation ...
This study will review the treatment and outcomes of patients having primary and metastatic hepatic malignancies. Patients treated with surgical resection, percutaneous radiofrequency abl...
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
An article or book published after examination of published material on a subject. It may be comprehensive to various degrees and the time range of material scrutinized may be broad or narrow, but the reviews most often desired are reviews of the current literature. The textual material examined may be equally broad and can encompass, in medicine specifically, clinical material as well as experimental research or case reports. State-of-the-art reviews tend to address more current matters. A review of the literature must be differentiated from HISTORICAL ARTICLE on the same subject, but a review of historical literature is also within the scope of this publication type.
The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...