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The use of adipose tissue transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery is not new and has been studied extensively. Due to different results with regard to adipose cell damage and the level of survival of the transferred tissue in clinical practice, the authors aimed to investigate the effects of centrifugation on fat aspirates to optimize the centrifugal force for fat transplantation and to obtain an increased number of intact adipose progenitor cells. The following different centrifugation forces were evaluated in vitro in terms of fat decantation: 3,000 rpm (1,500×g), 1,300 rpm (250×g), and 500 rpm (50×g). Moreover, the density level, morphology of fat cells, cell viability, and progenitor cell number also were evaluated. Centrifugation leads to a good fat tissue density, with a significant number of progenitor cells, and efficiently removes the liquid portion. High centrifugal forces (at 3,000 rpm) caused significant damage to fat cells with low cell viability, whereas very low centrifugal forces (at 500 rpm) showed little effect on adipose tissue density, resembling fat decantation. Fat aspirates, withdrawn from 30 healthy donors in vivo, were centrifuged at different rotations per minute (rpm), as follows. For the 10 patients in group A, Coleman's technique was used with a centrifugation of the aspirated fat at 3,000 rpm (1,500×g) for 3 min. For the 10 patients in group B, the authors' technique was used, with centrifugation of the aspirated fat at 1,300 rpm (250×g) for 5 min. For the 10 patients in group C, simple decantation of fat was used. In conclusion, a centrifugal force of 1,300 rpm resulted in better density of adipose tissue, with good cell viability and increased ability to preserve a significant number of progenitor cells.
Department of Orthopedic, Traumatologic, Rehabilitative e Plastic-Reconstructive, Second University of Naples, L. De Crecchio 3, 80138, Naples, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Aesthetic plastic surgery
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Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
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