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Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes are rare disorders that have potentially devastating effects on the developing brain. Recently, there has been increased interest in possible immunotherapy for these disorders. Recognition of paraneoplastic syndromes in children may lead to early detection and treatment of the pediatric cancer and may diminish the neurologic damage that is the major source of morbidity in children with successfully treated tumors. This article reviews the presenting symptoms, immunology, long-term sequelae, and management options for paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes, focusing on those most commonly reported in children: opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia, limbic encephalitis, and anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The child neurologist plays an important role in recognizing these disorders, initiating a tumor search, and directing ongoing treatment and management of neurologic symptoms after oncologic treatment is complete. Given the rarity of these conditions, multisite collaborative efforts are needed to develop standardized approaches to characterization and treatment.
Department of Neurology, Children's National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue, NW, Washington, DC, 20010, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current neurology and neuroscience reports
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