Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Malaria is one of the most common vector-borne diseases widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions. Despite considerable success of malaria control programs in the past, malaria still continues as a major public health problem in several countries. Vector control is an essential part for reducing malaria transmission and became less effective in recent years, due to many technical and administrative reasons, including poor or no adoption of alternative tools. Of the different strategies available for vector control, the most successful are indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), including long-lasting ITNs and materials. Earlier DDT spray has shown spectacular success in decimating disease vectors but resulted in development of insecticide resistance, and to control the resistant mosquitoes, organophosphates, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids were introduced in indoor residual spraying with needed success but subsequently resulted in the development of widespread multiple insecticide resistance in vectors. Vector control in many countries still use insecticides in the absence of viable alternatives. Few developments for vector control, using ovitraps, space spray, biological control agents, etc., were encouraging when used in limited scale. Likewise, recent introduction of safer vector control agents, such as insect growth regulators, biocontrol agents, and natural plant products have yet to gain the needed scale of utility for vector control. Bacterial pesticides are promising and are effective in many countries. Environmental management has shown sufficient promise for vector control and disease management but still needs advocacy for inter-sectoral coordination and sometimes are very work-intensive. The more recent genetic manipulation and sterile insect techniques are under development and consideration for use in routine vector control and for these, standardized procedures and methods are available but need thorough understanding of biology, ethical considerations, and sufficiently trained manpower for implementation being technically intensive methods. All the methods mentioned in the review that are being implemented or proposed for implementation needs effective inter-sectoral coordination and community participation. The latest strategy is evolution-proof insecticides that include fungal biopesticides, Wolbachia, and Denso virus that essentially manipulate the life cycle of the mosquitoes were found effective but needs more research. However, for effective vector control, integrated vector management methods, involving use of combination of effective tools, is needed and is also suggested by Global Malaria Control Strategy. This review article raises issues associated with the present-day vector control strategies and state opportunities with a focus on ongoing research and recent advances to enable to sustain the gains achieved so far.
Vector Control Division, National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), Sector 8, Dwarka, New Delhi, 110 077, India, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Parasitology research
Robust malaria vector surveillance is essential for optimally selecting and targeting vector control measures. Sixty-two vector surveillance sites were established between 2005 and 2008 by the nationa...
In Ethiopia, Anopheles arabiensis is the main vector responsible for the transmission of malaria in the country and its control mainly involves application of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and use of...
Malaria epidemiology is complex due to multiplicity of disease vectors, sibling species complex and variations in bionomical characteristics, vast varied terrain, various ecological determinants. Ther...
Over the past six decades, the drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum has become an issue of utmost concern. Despite the remarkable progress that has been made in recent years in reducing the mortal...
Insecticides are widely used to control malaria vectors and have significantly contributed to the reduction of malaria-caused mortality. In addition, the same classes of insecticides were widely intro...
This is a study of the genetics of malaria transmission by the mosquito vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. The study focuses on the mosquito vector, not the human subjects infected with ...
The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the use of (1) 'malaria prevalence', (2) 'malaria incidence' and (3) 'malaria mortality' as a measure of malaria transmission in The Gambia, ...
The purpose of this study is to study resistance to current malaria treatments and affordable alternatives for uncomplicated malaria. Resistance occurs in areas where these treatments are ...
Malaria in African countries remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity among young children. The global malaria control strategies include prompt treatment with an effective an...
The main purpose of this trial is to study whether a certain blood test can reliably identify the presence of malaria in people who have been infected with, but who do not have symptoms of...
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
Latest News Clinical Trials Research Drugs Reports Corporate
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Latest News Clinical Trials Research Drugs Reports Corporate
Malaria is a serious tropical disease spread by mosquitoes. If malaria is not diagnosed and treated promptly, it can be fatal. What causes malaria? Malaria is caused by a type of parasite known as Plasmodium. There are many different types of Plasmod...