Posterior epidural migration of herniated lumbar disc fragment.
Summary of "Posterior epidural migration of herniated lumbar disc fragment."
Object Posterior epidural migration of a free disc fragment in the lumbar region is a very rare condition that has only been reported in isolated cases to date. Patients with this condition present with radiculopathy or major neurological deficits. Difficulties in diagnosis and the choice and timing of surgical treatment are important in these cases. In this clinical case series, features of cases with posterior epidural migration of free lumbar disc fragments accompanied by cauda equina syndrome are discussed. Methods Eight cases (0.27%) of posterior epidural migration of disc fragments were detected among 2880 patients surgically treated for lumbar disc herniation between 1995 and 2008. Seven of these patients had cauda equina syndrome. The mean duration of symptoms in the 8 cases was 4.2 days (range 1-10 days). The group included 6 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 48 years (range 34-72 years). The sequestered disc fragments were at the L3-4 level in 6 patients (75%) and the L4-5 level in 2 (25%). Magnetic resonance imaging showed tumor-like ring contrast enhancement around sequestered fragments in 5 patients. The patients' motor, sensory, sexual, and urological functions were evaluated postoperatively, and modified Odom criteria and a visual analog scale were used in the assessment of postoperative outcomes. Results A microsurgical approach was used in all cases. Sequestrectomy with minimal hemilaminotomy and removal of the free segments were performed. The patients were followed up for a mean period of 28.5 months. Three patients (37.5%) had excellent results, 3 (37.5%) had good results, 1 patient (12.5%) had fair results, and only 1 patient had poor results according to the Odom criteria. The main factors affecting the long-term outcomes were the presence of cauda equina syndrome and the time period between onset of symptoms and surgery. Conclusions Patients with posterior migration of a disc fragment present with severe neurological deficits such as cauda equina syndrome. Because the radiological images of disc fragments may mimic those of other more common posterior epidural space-occupying lesions, definite diagnosis of posteriorly located disc fragments is difficult. All of these lesions can be completely removed with hemilaminotomy and sequestrectomy, and early surgical treatment is important as a first choice to prevent severe neurological deficits.
Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul; and.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21250807
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2010.11.SPINE10142
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The injection of autologous blood into the epidural space either as a prophylactic treatment immediately following an epidural puncture or for treatment of headache as a result of an epidural puncture.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)
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