Individual, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated with Initiating Methamphetamine Injection: Implications for Drug Use and HIV Prevention Strategies.
Summary of "Individual, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated with Initiating Methamphetamine Injection: Implications for Drug Use and HIV Prevention Strategies."
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of initiating methamphetamine injection among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU). We conducted a longitudinal analysis of IDU participating in a prospective study between June 2001 and May 2008 in Vancouver, Canada. IDU who had never reported injecting methamphetamine at the study's commencement were eligible. We used Cox proportional hazards models to identify the predictors of initiating methamphetamine injection. The outcome was time to first report of methamphetamine injection. Time-updated independent variables of interest included sociodemographic characteristics, drug use patterns, and social, economic and environmental factors. Of 1317 eligible individuals, the median age was 39.9 and 522 (39.6%) were female. At the study's conclusion, 200 (15.2%) participants had initiated injecting methamphetamine (incidence density: 4.3 per 100 person-years). In multivariate analysis, age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.96 per year older, 95%
0.95-0.98), female sex (a
0.41-0.82), sexual abuse (a
1.18-2.23), using drugs in Vancouver's drug scene epicentre (a
1.49-3.10), homelessness (a
1.01-2.04), non-injection crack cocaine use (a
1.36-3.14), and non-injection methamphetamine use (a
2.03-6.70) were associated with initiating methamphetamine injection. We observed a high incidence of methamphetamine initiation, particularly among young IDU, stimulant users, homeless individuals, and those involved in the city's open drug scene. These data should be useful for the development of a broad set of interventions aimed at reducing initiation into methamphetamine injection among IDU.
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6Z 1Y6.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21274628
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-010-0197-y
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.
A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.