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Alterations in the structure of the corpus callosum (CC) have been observed in schizophrenia. Offspring of schizophrenia parents have 10-15 times higher risk for developing schizophrenia. We examined CC volume in offspring at genetic high-risk (HR) subjects. Since the sub-regions of the CC are topographically mapped to cortical brain regions, we hypothesized that HR subjects may show a decrement in total volume and differential volume decreases in sub-regions of the CC. The offspring of schizophrenia parents (HR; n=70; 36 males) and healthy volunteers with no family or personal history of psychotic disorders (healthy controls (HC); n=73; 37 males) matched for age, gender and education were selected for the study. Magnetic resonance images were collected using a GE 1.5T scanner and processed using FreeSurfer image analysis software. The CC was divided into five neuroanatomically based partitions. The volume of total CC and the five sub-regions were measured blind to clinical information. With covariation for intracranial volume, HR subjects had significantly reduced total CC, more prominently observed in the anterior splenium. An age-related increase in CC volume was found in the anterior and posterior splenium of healthy controls but not in HR subjects. The volume reduction was greater in male than female HR subjects. The volume reduction in the CC may reflect a reduction in axonal fibers crossing the hemispheres and/or myelination between the left and right temporo-parietal cortices. The absence of an age-related volume increase suggests an abnormal developmental trajectory that may underlie susceptibility to schizophrenia.
Department of Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Psychiatry research
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A condition caused by autosomal recessive gene mutations leading to hypogenesis or absence (agenesis) or of CORPUS CALLOSUM, the band of nerve fibers joining the two CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. Clinical features include MENTAL RETARDATION; CRANIOFACIAL ABNORMALITIES; digital malformations, and growth retardation.
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A rare genetic disorder characterized by partial or complete absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM, resulting in infantile spasms, MENTAL RETARDATION, and lesions of the RETINA or OPTIC NERVE.
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The smooth pebbled appearance of the CEREBRAL CORTEX with a thickened cortex and reduced and abnormal white matter, which results from migration of heterotopic neurons beyond the marginal zone into the leptomeninges through gaps in the external BASEMENT MEMBRANE. There is also enlarged ventricles, underdeveloped BRAINSTEM and cerebellum, and absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. These abnormalities occur as a syndrome without other birth defects (cobblestone complex) or in other syndromes associated with congenital MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, often involving the eye, such as the Walker-Warburg Syndrome, Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, and muscle-eye-brain disease.
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Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...
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