An arousing discovery on catalepsy: orexin regulates vestibular motor functions.
Summary of "An arousing discovery on catalepsy: orexin regulates vestibular motor functions."
A study by Zhang et al. in this issue of Neuron reveals a novel mechanism of control of vestibular motor functions by the orexin (hypocretin) system in the perifornical/LH area through the lateral vestibular nucleus in the brainstem. This knowledge provides new insights into the understanding of brain circuitry that controls motor functions and diseases/conditions related to impairments in this circuitry.
Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism Program, Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21338870
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.017
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
Photosensory rhodopsins found in microorganisms such as HALOBACTERIA. They convert light signals into biochemical information that regulates certain cellular functions such as flagellar motor activity.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
Vestibular Nucleus, Lateral
Vestibular nucleus lying immediately superior to the inferior vestibular nucleus and composed of large multipolar nerve cells. Its upper end becomes continuous with the superior vestibular nucleus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.
The absence of orexin results in narcolepsy-cataplexy. While the function of the central orexinergic system in sleep regulation has been well studied, the role of orexin in motor control is largely un...
Previous studies showed that 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors play an important role in controlling the extrapyramidal motor disorders. However, the functions of other 5-HT receptor subtypes remain elus...
We studied autonomic functions in orexin-deficient mice and found abnormalities in the emotional state-dependent adjustment of the central autonomic regulation on circulation and respiration. These ar...
The neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, produced in hypothalamic neurons, are critical regulators of sleep/wake states. Deficiency of orexin signaling results in narcoleptic phenotype in humans, dogs...
Orexin A and B (hypocretin-1 and -2) are hypothalamic peptides that exert their biological functions by stimulation of two specific, membrane-bound receptors, OX(1)R and OX(2)R. Recently, we have demo...
The aim of this study is to assess if early supported vestibular rehabilitation can reduce dizziness and improve daily life activities in patients with acute vestibular injury. Our study...
OBJECTIVES: I. Evaluate whether vestibular rehabilitation training is of value in reducing anxiety symptoms in patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia who have vestibula...
The bioelectrical responses of muscle, evoked by sound, obtained with a device considered the gold standard (widely used in clinics and hospitals) are similar to those obtained with a new...
Do migrainous vertigo patients have more pathology in their vestibular system than migraine patients without vertigo? The aim of this study is to compare the vestibular system of migraine...
The overall goal of the proposed project is: (1) to perform a preliminary study to determine optimal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) settings based on performance of one cognitive te...