Handwriting Difficulties in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Scoping Review.
Functional handwriting involves complex interactions among physical, cognitive and sensory systems. Impairments in many aspects of these systems are associated with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), suggesting a heightened risk of handwriting difficulties in children with ASD. This scoping review aimed to: (1) survey the existing evidence about potential contributions to compromised handwriting function in children with ASD, and (2) map out the existing studies documenting handwriting difficulties in children with ASD. The current evidence implicates impairments in fine motor control and visual-motor integration as likely contributors to handwriting difficulties in children with ASD, though the role of the latter is not well-understood. Moreover, diminished overall legibility and compromised letter formation are emerging points of convergence among existing studies of handwriting quality in children with ASD.
Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, 150 Kilgour Road, Toronto, ON, M4G 1R8, Canada, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of autism and developmental disorders
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350917
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1206-0
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A childhood disorder predominately affecting boys and similar to autism (AUTISTIC DISORDER). It is characterized by severe, sustained, clinically significant impairment of social interaction, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. In contrast to autism, there are no clinically significant delays in language or cognitive development. (From DSM-IV)
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.
Disorders comprising a spectrum of brain malformations representing the paradigm of a diffuse neuronal migration disorder. They result in cognitive impairment; SEIZURES; and HYPOTONIA or spasticity. Mutations of two genes, LIS1, the gene for the non-catalytic subunit of PLATELET-ACTIVATING FACTOR ACETYLHYDROLASE IB; and DCX or XLIS, the gene for doublecortin, have been identified as the most common causes of disorders in this spectrum. Additional variants of classical (Type I) lissencephaly have been linked to RELN, the gene for reelin, and ARX, the gene for aristaless related homeobox protein. (From Leventer, R.J., et al, Mol Med Today. 2000 Jul;6(7):277-84 and Barkovich, A.J., et al, Neurology. 2005 Dec 27;65(12):1873-87.)