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Selenium is an essential element for human health. The benefits of selenium are many including protection against cancer, heart diseases and other cardiovascular and muscle disorders. Selenium is also helpful in controlling gastrointestinal disorders, enhancing immunity of the human body and reducing age-related diseases. The health-promoting properties of Se are due to vital functions of selenoproteins in which selenium is present as selenocysteine, the 21st amino acid. To date, dozens of selenoprotein families have been described though many have roles that have not been fully elucidated. Selenoproteins research has attracted tremendous interest from different scientific areas. Analytical chemists have not remained indifferent to the attractive features of these unique proteins. Different analytical techniques, such as multidimensional chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), electrospray (tandem) mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SDS-PAGE-LA-ICPMS), have been applied to the determination of selenoproteins and selenium-containing proteins. This review describes the best-characterized selenoproteins to date in addition to the major contributions of analytical chemistry to the field of selenoproteins. The article also highlights the challenges of combining elemental and molecular mass spectrometry for the determination of selenoproteins and selenium-containing proteins.
Departamento de Química Analítica. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
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An extracellular selenoprotein that contains most of the SELENIUM in PLASMA. Selenoprotein P functions as an antioxidant and appears to transport selenium from the LIVER to peripheral tissues.
Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.
A selenium compound used as a source of SELENIUM, especially for patients that develop selenium deficiency following prolonged PARENTERAL NUTRITION.
Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.
A group of proteins that covalently attach to selenium or SELENIUM-containing compounds.
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