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The association of microneedles with electric pulses causing electroporation could result in an efficient and less painful delivery of drugs and DNA into the skin. Hollow conductive microneedles were used for (1) needle-free intradermal injection and (2) electric pulse application in order to achieve electric field in the superficial layers of the skin sufficient for electroporation. Microneedle array was used in combination with a vibratory inserter to disrupt the stratum corneum, thus piercing the skin. Effective injection of proteins into the skin was achieved, resulting in an immune response directed to the model antigen ovalbumin. However, when used both as microneedles to inject and as electrodes to apply the electric pulses, the setup showed several limitations for DNA electrotransfer. This could be due to the distribution of the electric field in the skin as shown by numerical calculations and/or the low dose of DNA injected. Further investigation of these parameters is needed in order to optimize minimally invasive DNA electrotransfer in the skin.
Louvain Drug Research Institute, Unité de pharmacie galénique, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue E. Mounier 73/20, 1200, Brussels, Belgium.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of membrane biology
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Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A nevus in which nests of melanocytes are found in the dermis, but not at the epidermal-dermal junction. Benign pigmented nevi in adults are most commonly intradermal. (Stedman, 25th ed)
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