Activation of phenylpropanoid pathway in legume plants exposed to heavy metals: Part I. Effects of cadmium and lead on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression, enzyme activity and lignin content.
Summary of "Activation of phenylpropanoid pathway in legume plants exposed to heavy metals: Part I. Effects of cadmium and lead on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression, enzyme activity and lignin content."
Species-specific changes in expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lignin content were detected in roots of soybean (Glycine max L.) and lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seedlings treated with different concentrations of cadmium (Cd(2+), 0-25 mg/l) or lead (Pb(2+), 0-350 mg/l). The stimulatory effect of both metals was observed in mRNA coding for PAL in soybean. In the case of lupine, changes of PAL mRNA level were dependent on the metal used: Cd(2+) caused a decrease, whereas Pb(2+) an increase of PAL transcript level. The activity of PAL was enhanced in both plant species at higher metal concentrations (15-25 mg/l of Cd(2+) or 150-350 mg/l of Pb(2+)); however it was not directly correlated with PAL mRNA. This suggests a transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of PAL expression under heavy metals stress. In soybean, Cd(2+) or Pb(2+) treatment increased lignin content, while in lupine the effect was opposite. The decreased lignin accumulation in lupine roots in response to heavy metals, despite an increased PAL activity, suggests that the activated phenylpropanoid pathway was involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites other than lignin.
Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta biochimica Polonica
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and ALGAE. They sequester HEAVY METALS.
Complement System Proteins
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activa
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