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The "central dogma" of biology outlines the unidirectional flow of interpretable data from genetic sequence to protein sequence. This has led to the idea that a protein's structure is dependent only on its amino acid sequence and not its genetic sequence. Recently, however, a more than transient link between the coding genetic sequence and the protein structure has become apparent. The two interact at the ribosome via the process of co-translational protein folding. Evidence for co-translational folding is growing rapidly, but the influence of codons on the protein structure attained is still highly contentious. It is theorised that the speed of codon translation modulates the time available for protein folding and hence the protein structure. Here, past and present research regarding synonymous codons and codon translation speed are reviewed within the context of protein structure attainment.
Department of Statistics, Oxford University, Oxford, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Name: Biotechnology journal
Protein output from synonymous codons is thought to be equivalent if appropriate tRNAs are sufficiently abundant. Here we show that mRNAs encoding iterated lysine codons, AAA or AAG, differentially im...
A valuable information on morphological details of the cell can be obtained through imprint cytology. Though it has some pitfalls, it is still considered to be one of the best methods as it provides a...
The Ambiguous Nucleotide Tool (ANT) is a desktop application which generates and evaluates degenerate codons. Degenerate codons are used to represent DNA positions which have multiple possible nucleot...
Protein termination is an important cellular process. Protein termination relies on the stop-codons in the mRNA interact properly with the releasing factors on the ribosome. One third of inherited dis...
Genetic code expansion is a key objective of synthetic biology and protein engineering. Most efforts in this direction are focused on reassigning termination or decoding quadruplet codons. While the r...
The aim of this project is to investigate the potential benefits of combining a new protein meat hydrolysates extract with a regular resistance training programme on (a) body composition (...
This study will examine the structure of the receptor molecule for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and determine if the receptor's structure is related to susceptibility to infection with t...
Dietary intervention to prevent sarcopenia in elderly people. The objective of this study is to test whether meat structure plays an important role in protein digestion, to maximise the am...
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of age on the estimated average requirement and adequate allowance for dietary protein.
Currently there is no technique to produce thin (0.004-0.01 mm) serial sections of large fresh tissue specimens that are suitable for high-resolution in situ protein/gene expression studie...
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A rapid biochemical reaction involved in the formation of proteins. It begins even before a protein has been completely synthesized and proceeds through discrete intermediates (primary, secondary, and tertiary structures) before the final structure (quaternary structure) is developed.
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Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...