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The "central dogma" of biology outlines the unidirectional flow of interpretable data from genetic sequence to protein sequence. This has led to the idea that a protein's structure is dependent only on its amino acid sequence and not its genetic sequence. Recently, however, a more than transient link between the coding genetic sequence and the protein structure has become apparent. The two interact at the ribosome via the process of co-translational protein folding. Evidence for co-translational folding is growing rapidly, but the influence of codons on the protein structure attained is still highly contentious. It is theorised that the speed of codon translation modulates the time available for protein folding and hence the protein structure. Here, past and present research regarding synonymous codons and codon translation speed are reviewed within the context of protein structure attainment.
Department of Statistics, Oxford University, Oxford, UK. email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biotechnology journal
Our understanding of translation underpins our capacity to engineer living systems. The canonical start codon (AUG) and a few near-cognates (GUG, UUG) are considered as the 'start codons' for translat...
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Gene codon optimization may be impaired by the misinterpretation of frequency and optimality of codons. Although recent studies have revealed the effects of codon usage bias (CUB) on protein biosynthe...
Codon usage biases are found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes and have been proposed to regulate different aspects of translation process. Codon optimality has been shown to regulate translat...
Plasmodium falciparum genome has 81% A+T content. This nucleotide bias leads to extreme codon usage bias and culminates in frequent insertion of asparagine homorepeats in the proteome. Using recodoniz...
The aim of this project is to investigate the potential benefits of combining a new protein meat hydrolysates extract with a regular resistance training programme on (a) body composition (...
The aim of this project is to investigate the potential benefits of combining a new protein beef hydrolysates extract with a regular endurance training programme on (a) body composition (b...
The aim of this project is to investigate the potential benefits of combining a new protein meat hydrolysates extract with a regular endurance training programme on (a) body composition (b...
Cytological diagnosis of hepatic angiosarcoma by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or imprint cytology is difficult due not only to its various cytomorphologic features but also clinical rarity...
This study will examine the structure of the receptor molecule for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and determine if the receptor's structure is related to susceptibility to infection with t...
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...