Drug-specific cyclodextrins with emphasis on sugammadex, the neuromuscular blocker rocuronium and perioperative anaphylaxis: implications for drug allergy.
Summary of "Drug-specific cyclodextrins with emphasis on sugammadex, the neuromuscular blocker rocuronium and perioperative anaphylaxis: implications for drug allergy."
Cyclodextrins, oligosaccharides linked in a circular arrangement around a central cavity, are used extensively in the pharmaceutical industry to improve drug delivery. Their usefulness depends on their capacity to form a drug inclusion, or host-guest, complex within the cavity. In an attempt to improve the delivery of the widely used neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD) rocuronium, a rocuronium inclusion complex was formed with a chemically modified γ-cyclodextrin. The high binding affinity and specificity of the modified carrier (named sugammadex) for rocuronium (and other aminosteroid NMBDs) led to its use in anaesthesia as an innovative and useful agent for rapid reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block by sequestering the drug as an inclusion complex. This, in turn, led to the suggestion that sugammadex might be useful to remove the NMBD from the circulation of patients experiencing rocuronium-induced anaphylaxis, a suggestion subsequently supported in case reports where traditional treatment had failed. Successful resuscitations suggested that sugammadex might be a valuable new treatment for such intractable cases but, given the inappropriateness of clinical trials, confirmation or refutation will have to await the slow accumulation of results of individual case reports. Important questions related to antibody accessibility of drug allergenic structures on the rocuronium-sugammadex inclusion complex, and the competition between sugammadex and IgE antibodies (both free and cell bound) for rocuronium, also remain and can be investigated in vitro. The sugammadex findings indicate that the use of carrier molecules such as the cyclodextrins to improve drug delivery will sometimes give rise to changed immunologic and allergenic behaviour of some drugs and this will have to be taken into account in preclinical drug safety assessments of drug-carrier complexes. The possibility of encapsulating and removing other allergenic drugs, e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins, in cases of difficult-to-reverse anaphylaxis to these drugs is discussed.
School of Women's and Infants' Health and School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women, Perth, WA, Australia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21732999
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2011.03805.x
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))
A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.