Evo-devo: Hydra raises its Noggin.
Summary of "Evo-devo: Hydra raises its Noggin."
Noggin, along with other secreted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitors, plays a crucial role in neural induction and neural tube patterning as well as in somitogenesis, cardiac morphogenesis and formation of the skeleton in vertebrates. The BMP signalling pathway is one of the seven fundamental pathways that drive embryonic development and pattern formation in animals. Understanding its evolutionary origin and role in pattern formation is, therefore, important to evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). We have studied the evolutionary origin of BMP-Noggin antagonism in hydra, which is a powerful diploblastic model to study evolution of pattern-forming mechanisms because of the unusual cellular dynamics during its pattern formation and its remarkable ability to regenerate. We cloned and characterized the noggin gene from hydra and found it to exhibit considerable similarity with its orthologues at the amino acid level. Microinjection of hydra Noggin mRNA led to duplication of the dorsoventral axis in Xenopus embryos, demonstrating its functional conservation across the taxa. Our data, along with those of others, indicate that the evolutionarily conserved antagonism between BMP and its inhibitors predates bilateral divergence. This article reviews the various roles of Noggin in different organisms and some of our recent work on hydra Noggin in the context of evolution of developmental signalling pathways.
Division of Animal Sciences, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004, India.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of biosciences
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
Mitral Valve Stenosis
Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.
Intra-aortic Balloon Pumping
Counterpulsation in which a pumping unit synchronized with the patient's electrocardiogram rapidly fills a balloon in the aorta with helium or carbon dioxide in early diastole and evacuates the balloon at the onset of systole. As the balloon inflates, it raises aortic diastolic pressure, and as it deflates, it lowers aortic systolic pressure. The result is a decrease in left ventricular work and increased myocardial and peripheral perfusion.
The seemingly paradoxical increase of a species population size in response to an increase in its mortality rate has been observed in several continuous-time and discrete-time models. This phenomenon...
Planarians regenerate a whole animal from a small body piece within a few days [1, 2]. Recent studies have shown that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is required to reestablish the dorsov...
It is increasingly recognized that current established model systems are not sufficient to understand the evolution of biodiversity. The main limitation in developing additional model systems is the d...
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists have roles in scar formation and regeneration after central nervous system injuries. However, temporal changes in their expression during astro...
BMP signaling plays many important roles during organ development, including palatogenesis. Loss of BMP signaling leads to cleft palate formation. During development, BMP activities are finely tuned b...
The objectives of this study are to : 1) determine if vaccenic acid (trans-11-octadecenoic, a naturally occurring trans fatty acid isomer from ruminant animal products) raises LDL choleste...
To characterize the genetic basis of the variable response of triglycerides to two environmental contexts, one that raises triglycerides (dietary fat), and one that lowers triglycerides (f...
The purpose of this study is to determine if 14-19 year old African American adolescents are able to take a daily vitamin D supplement daily for about 4 months and how well a daily dose of...
To compare the efficacy of fluconazole versus placebo for the prevention of Candida esophagitis and vaginal/oropharyngeal candidiasis, including a comparison of the development of clinical...
This study will evaluate how a common dietary sugar (fructose) raises blood fats (triglycerides). We will determine whether the production of fat from fructose is higher in dialysis patie...