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Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is the functional renal failure associated with advanced cirrhosis and has also been described in fulminant hepatic failure. Without liver transplantation its prognosis is dismal. Our study included patients with type 1 HRS associated with cirrhosis, who were not liver transplant candidates.
To identify variables associated with improved survival.
Sixty-eight patients fulfilled the revised Ascites Club Criteria for type 1 HRS. None of them was suitable for liver transplantation. All the patients were treated with combinations of: albumin, midodrine and octreotide, pressors, and hemodialysis.
Median survival was 13 days for the whole group. Survival varied with the end-stage liver disease (ESLD) etiology: autoimmune, 49 days, cardiac cirrhosis, 22 days, idiopathic, 15.5 days, viral, 15 days, hepatitis C and alcohol, 14.5 days, alcohol 8 days, and neoplasia 4 days (p = 0.048). Survival of HRS associated with alcoholic liver disease versus other etiologies was not statistically significant (p = 0.1). Increased serum creatinine (p = 0.02) and urinary sodium 6-10 mEq/l (p = 0.027) at the initiation of therapy were prognostic factors for mortality. HRS treatment modalities (p = 0.73), use of dialysis (p = 0.56), dialysis modality (p = 0.35), use of vasopressors (p = 0.26), pre-existing renal disease (p = 0.49), gender (p = 0.90), and age (p = 0.57) were not associated with survival.
We report for the first time ESLD etiology as a prognostic factor for survival. The renal function (expressed as serum creatinine) and urinary Na (<5 mEq/l) at the time of diagnosis were found to be associated with survival, suggesting that early treatment might increase survival.
Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 983040 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 69198-3040, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Digestive diseases and sciences
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The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
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The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
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