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Obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance/type 2 diabetes and hypertension are clustered in the metabolic syndrome representing critical risk factors for increased incidence cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases, kidney failure and cancer. Ectopic fat accumulation, i.e., accumulation in the mediastinum, liver and the abdomen, as well as generalized fat accumulation are associated with arterial hypertension, either systolic or diastolic. Several mechanisms including insulin resistance, sub-inflammatory state, increased Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) system activity, oxidative stress, autonomic dysregulation as well as mechanical compression on the kidneys are all activated by obesity. Interestingly angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II (ATII) receptor blockers, while correcting arterial hypertension, also have a positive effect on glucose metabolism and diabetes prevention, in high risk patients. The implementation of dietary, medical and surgical strategies to prevent and treat obesity, are cornerstones for the primary prevention as well as treatment of arterial hypertension.
Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current pharmaceutical design
Over the past decades, obesity and its metabolic co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) developed to reach an endemic scale. However, the mechanisms leading to the development of T2D are still p...
Insulin resistance arises when the nutrient storage pathways evolved to maximize efficient energy utilization are exposed to chronic energy surplus. Ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal mu...
Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of hypertension, which is seriously detrimental to human health. Recently, Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) has been found to participate in regulation o...
Hypertension and diabetes are associated with impaired glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system may contribute to either condition. The purpose o...
Insulin resistance is the state of reduced tissue sensitivity to insulin. The frequency of this occurrence is increasing dramatically in developed countries. Both, environmental and genetic factors ar...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate 1) the incidence of insulin resistance (a pre-diabetic state) in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and 2) test the utility of a validated PH th...
Abnormalities of glucose, insulin and lipoprotein metabolism are common in patients with hypertension, and these metabolic abnormalities are reported to be related to insulin resistance. T...
Numerous studies have demonstrated that excess perivisceral adipose tissue is associated with metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle, insulin resistance has bee...
Increased levels of intracellular calcium are thought to diminish maximal cellular response to insulin and induce insulin resistance. Also, both hypertension and diabetes are thought to be...
A Prospective Double-Blinded, Placebo Controlled, Randomized Trial comparing a single dose of Vitamin D (Colecalciferol) 300.00UI to placebo on patients with insulin resistance. Primary Ou...
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS. It can be caused by the presence of INSULIN ANTIBODIES or the abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on target cell surfaces. It is often associated with OBESITY; DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS; INFECTION; and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Rare autosomal recessive syndrome of extreme insulin resistance due to mutations in the binding domain of INSULIN RECEPTOR. Clinical features include severe intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction, characteristic dysmorphic FACIES; HIRSUTISM; VIRILIZATION; multiple endocrine abnormalities, and early death.
Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...
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