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Obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance/type 2 diabetes and hypertension are clustered in the metabolic syndrome representing critical risk factors for increased incidence cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases, kidney failure and cancer. Ectopic fat accumulation, i.e., accumulation in the mediastinum, liver and the abdomen, as well as generalized fat accumulation are associated with arterial hypertension, either systolic or diastolic. Several mechanisms including insulin resistance, sub-inflammatory state, increased Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) system activity, oxidative stress, autonomic dysregulation as well as mechanical compression on the kidneys are all activated by obesity. Interestingly angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II (ATII) receptor blockers, while correcting arterial hypertension, also have a positive effect on glucose metabolism and diabetes prevention, in high risk patients. The implementation of dietary, medical and surgical strategies to prevent and treat obesity, are cornerstones for the primary prevention as well as treatment of arterial hypertension.
Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa, Italy. email@example.com.
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The aim was to evaluate the relationships among insulin resistance markers and nocturnal and diurnal hypertension in normotensive or mildly untreated hypertensive adults.
We recently described that carotid body (CB) over-activation is involved in the aetiology of insulin resistance and arterial hypertension in animal models of the metabolic syndrome. Additionally, we h...
We hypothesized that liver markers and the fatty liver index (FLI) are predictive of incident hypertension and that hepatic insulin resistance plays a role.
Inflammation might link microbial exposures to insulin resistance. We investigated the cross-sectional association between periodontal microbiota, inflammation and insulin resistance.
To assess the utility of HOMA-IR in assessing insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compare it with fasting insulin for assessing insulin resistance (IR).
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Increased levels of intracellular calcium are thought to diminish maximal cellular response to insulin and induce insulin resistance. Also, both hypertension and diabetes are thought to be...
Numerous studies have demonstrated that excess perivisceral adipose tissue is associated with metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle, insulin resistance has bee...
A Prospective Double-Blinded, Placebo Controlled, Randomized Trial comparing a single dose of Vitamin D (Colecalciferol) 300.00UI to placebo on patients with insulin resistance. Primary Ou...
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS. It can be caused by the presence of INSULIN ANTIBODIES or the abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on target cell surfaces. It is often associated with OBESITY; DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS; INFECTION; and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The active alterations of vascular wall structures, often leading to elevated VASCULAR RESISTANCE. It is associated with AGING; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPERTENSION; PREGNANCY; PULMONARY HYPERTENSION; and STROKE, but is also a normal part of EMBRYOGENESIS.
Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...
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