Carbon dioxide induction of panic anxiety in schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations.
Summary of "Carbon dioxide induction of panic anxiety in schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations."
Panic is commonly co-morbid with schizophrenia. Panic may emerge prodromally, contribute to specific psychotic symptoms, and predict medication response. Panic is often missed due to agitation, impaired cognition, psychotic symptom overlap and limited clinician awareness. Carbon dioxide exposure has been used reliably to induce panic in non-psychotic panic subjects, but has not been systematically studied in schizophrenia. Eight inpatients with schizophrenia, recent auditory hallucinations, none preselected for panic, all on antipsychotic medication, received a structured Panic and Schizophrenia Interview (PaSI), assessing DSM-IV panic symptoms concurrent with paroxysmal auditory hallucinations. On that interview, all eight subjects reported panic concurrent with auditory hallucinations. At one sitting, subjects were exposed, in random order, to 35% carbon dioxide and to placebo room air, blinded to condition. All subjects experienced panic to carbon dioxide, one with limited symptoms. Only one subject panicked to placebo. One subject (one of only two without antipanic medication) had paroxysmal voices concurrent with induced panic. With added adjunctive clonazepam, that patient had marked clinical improvement and no response to carbon dioxide re-challenge. This first systematic examination offers preliminary evidence that carbon dioxide safely induces panic symptoms in schizophrenia. Panic may be prevalent and pathophysiologically significant in schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Psychiatry research
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21719111
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2011.06.008
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC 220.127.116.11.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC 18.104.22.168.
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 22.214.171.124.
A copper protein that catalyzes the formation of 2 moles of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate in the presence of carbon dioxide. It utilizes oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to form 2-phosphoglycollate and 3-phosphoglycerate. EC 126.96.36.199.
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