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To determine whether there are differences in the adverse effect profile between 1, 2 and 5% Lidocaine when used for occipital nerve blocks (ONB) in patients with occipital neuralgia. Occipital neuralgia is an uncommon cause of headaches. Little is known regarding the safety of Lidocaine injections for treatment in larger series of patients. Retrospective chart analysis of all ONB was performed at our headache clinic during a 6-year period on occipital neuralgia patients. 89 consecutive patients with occipital neuralgia underwent a total of 315 ONB. All the patients fulfilled the IHS criteria for Occipital Neuralgia. Demographic data were collected including age, gender, and ethnicity. The average age of this cohort was 53.25 years, and the majority of patients were females 69 (78%). Ethnicity of patients was diverse, with Caucasian 48(54%), Hispanics 31(35%), and others 10 (11%). 69 patients had 1%, 18 patients had 2% and 29 patient were given 5% Lidocaine. All Lidocaine injections were given with 20 mg Depo-medrol and the same injection technique and location were used for all the procedures. Eight patients (9%)had adverse effects to the Lidocaine and Depo-medrol injections, of which 5 received 5% and 3 received 1% Lidocaine. Majority of patients who had adverse effects were female 7(87%), and had received bilateral blocks (75%). ONB is a safe procedure with 1% Lidocaine; however, caution should be exerted with 5% in elderly patients, 70 or older, especially when administering bilateral injections.
Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1100 North State St, Room A4E111, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The journal of headache and pain
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of greater occipital nerve (GON) block in the treatment of migraine patients.
Comparative Evaluation of Anesthetic Efficacy of 2% Lidocaine, 4% Articaine, and 0.5% Bupivacaine on Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial.
To compare the anesthetic efficacy of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine on producing inferior ...
A femoral nerve block (FNB) in combination with a sciatic nerve block (SNB) is commonly used for anesthesia and analgesia in patients undergoing hindfoot and ankle surgery. The effects of FNB on motor...
Adrenaline is known to prolong the duration of local anesthesia but its effects on the pharmacokinetic processes of local anesthetic drugs are not fully understood. Our objective was to develop a comp...
Caudal block is commonly administered for postoperative analgesia in children. Although caudal block with 1.5 ml kg -1 local anaesthetic has been reported to reduce cerebral oxygenation in infants, ...
Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks (GONB) are a common procedure used for the treatment of headache. The GONB procedure involves a series of injections into the greater occipital nerve (a spi...
Migraine and the skin sensitivity that accompanies it can go away in minutes after a nerve block, which is a procedure involving an injection of a small amount of a local anesthetic next t...
This is a randomized, sham-controlled study of greater occipital nerve block (GONB) using bupivacaine 0.5% for emergency department patients with acute migraine. Patients are only enrolled...
Several observational studies have shown improvement in episodic migraine with the use of greater occipital nerve block as an acute therapy, and a recent placebo controlled trial did not s...
Axillary brachial plexus block is an safe, effective and widely used technique for providing surgical anesthesia at and below the elbow. Inadvertent intraneural and intravascular injection...
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects. The NOAEL will depend on how closely dosages are spaced (lowest-observed-adverse-effect level and no-observed-effect level) and the number of animals examined. The ultimate objective is usually to determine not the "safe" dosage in laboratory animals but the "safe" dosage for humans. Therefore, the extrapolation most often required of toxicologists is from high-dosage studies in laboratory animals to low doses in humans. (Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 4th ed)
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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