Cerebellar Stimulation in Ataxia.
Summary of "Cerebellar Stimulation in Ataxia."
The cerebellum plays an important role in movement execution and motor control by modulation of the primary motor cortex (M1) through cerebello-thalamo-cortical connections. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows direct investigations of neural networks by stimulating neural structures in humans noninvasively. The motor evoked potential to single-pulse TMS of M1 is used to measure the motor cortical excitability. A conditioning stimulus over the cerebellum preceding a test stimulus of the contralateral M1 enables us to study the cerebellar regulatory functions on M1. In this brief review, we describe this cerebellar stimulation method and its usefulness as a diagnostic tool in clinical neurophysiology.
Department of Neurology, Fukushima Medical University, School of Medicine, 1 Hikarigaoka, 960-1295, Fukushima, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cerebellum (London, England)
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22116658
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12311-011-0329-3
Ataxia is a common neurological syndrome resulting from cerebellar, vestibular or sensory disorders. The recognition and characterisation of sensory ataxia remains a challenge. Cerebellar ataxia is th...
Recently, we identified a novel Purkinje cell-specific autoantibody (termed anti-Ca) targeting rhoGTPase-activating-protein-26 (ARHGAP26) in a patient with cerebellar ataxia. Here we describe a new ca...
Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GAD-65) catalyses glutamate conversion into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the central nervous system and in the pancreatic β cells. Antibodies targeting GAD...
Cerebellar hypoplasia (CH) is a rare malformation caused by various etiologies, usually manifesting clinically as nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia with or without mental retardation. The molecular pat...
Physical therapy intervention is the primary treatment for gait ataxia and imbalance in individuals with cerebellar damage. Our aim was to determine if a home balance exercise program is feasible for...
The hereditary cerebellar ataxias include diverse neurodegenerative disorders. Hereditary ataxias can be divided into autosomal dominant ataxias (ADCAs), autosomal recessive ataxias (ARCAs...
Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the cerebellum is active during cognitive performance. The investigators hypothesize that stimulation of the cerebellum with transcranial m...
This study will examine whether high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is safe and effective for treating cerebellar ataxia-degeneration of the cerebellum, the part of the brain respo...
This research is being done to find out if Baclofen, a medicine that is often used for the treatment of abnormal stiffness, might also be useful to treat some of the neurologic problems ca...
The purpose of this study is to determine if varenicline is effective in treating symptoms of Friedreich's ataxia.
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
Cerebellar degeneration associated with a remote neoplasm. Clinical manifestations include progressive limb and GAIT ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; and NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC. The histologic type of the associated neoplasm is usually carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically the cerebellar cortex and subcortical nuclei demonstrate diffuse degenerative changes. Anti-Purkinje cell antibodies (anti-Yo) are found in the serum of approximately 50% of affected individuals. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p686)