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There are close links among hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Glutamine (GLN) is an amino acid with immunomodulatory properties. The present study investigated the effect of dietary GLN on oxidative stress-relative gene expressions and tissue oxidative damage in diabetes. There were one normal control (NC) and two diabetic groups in the present study. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide followed by streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in the NC group were fed a regular chow diet. In the two diabetic groups, one group (diabetes mellitus, DM) was fed a common semi-purified diet while the other group received a diet in which part of the casein was replaced by GLN (DM-GLN). GLN provided 25 % of total amino acid N. The experimental groups were fed the respective diets for 8 weeks, and then the rats were killed for further analysis. The results showed that blood thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) mRNA expression in the diabetic groups was higher than that in the NC group. Compared with the DM group, the DM-GLN group had lower glutamine fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1, a receptor of advanced glycation end products, and Txnip gene expressions in blood mononuclear cells. The total antioxidant capacity was lower and antioxidant enzyme activities were altered by the diabetic condition. GLN supplementation increased antioxidant capacity and normalised antioxidant enzyme activities. Also, the renal nitrotyrosine level and Txnip mRNA expression were lower when GLN was administered. These results suggest that dietary GLN supplementation decreases oxidative stress-related gene expression, increases the antioxidant potential and may consequently attenuate renal oxidative damage in rats with STZ-induced diabetes.
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan, ROC.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The British journal of nutrition
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A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
A forkhead box transcription factor that is a major target of INSULIN signaling and regulator of metabolic homeostasis in response to OXIDATIVE STRESS. It binds to the insulin RESPONSE ELEMENT (IRE) and the related Daf-16 family binding element (DBE). Its activity is suppressed by insulin and it also regulates OSTEOBLAST proliferation, controls bone mass, and skeletal regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism. It promotes GLUCONEOGENESIS in HEPATOCYTES and regulates gene expression in ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is also an important CELL DEATH regulator. Chromosomal aberrations involving the FOXO1 gene occur in RHABDOMYOSARCOMA.
The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
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