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Epigenetic gene silencing is a hallmark of cancer cells. Two important types of epigenetic changes are DNA methylation and histone modification. These modifications are catalysed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), resulting in chromatin structure changes and gene inactivation. Interestingly, inhibition of these enzymes is known to induce differentiation or apoptosis of cancer cells. Therefore, DNMTs and HDACs have become attractive therapeutic targets. In recent years, many different DNMT and HDAC inhibitors have been developed, and multiple molecular mechanisms through which these agents exert anti-cancer effects have been identified. While a large number of clinical trials are ongoing, hypomethylating agents and HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising for treating several types of cancer. Moreover, developing effective strategies of combining epigenetic therapy with conventional chemotherapy will be one of the major challenges in the future. We briefly review current advances in epigenetic therapies with a focus on recently reported clinical trials.
Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
This article was published in the following journal.
It has been known for decades that as cancer progresses, tumors develop genetic alterations, making them highly prone to developing resistance to therapies. Classically, it has been thought that these...
Distinct progress has been made in recent years in the therapy of acute leukemia. For acute myeloid leukemia (AML), this progress has been anchored in the increased understanding of genomic complexity...
Many cancer cells show distorted epigenetic landscapes. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project profiles thousands of tumors, allowing the discovery of somatic alterations in the epigenetic machinery a...
Stem cell-based therapeutic strategies have emerged as very attractive treatment options over the past decade. Stem cells are now being utilized as delivery vehicles especially in cancer therapy to de...
Management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has changed markedly over the last decade with major shifts in the treatment paradigm, although ultimately still will progress despite cur...
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a type of kidney replacement therapy for patients with chronic kidney disease where the peritoneal membrane is used to filter the blood. Exposure to PD fluid re...
The purpose of this study is to test two quit smoking therapies and to study brain function while each therapy is being used. You will be randomly assigned (like flipping a coin) to one of...
The purpose of this protocol is to assess whether epigenetic factors in healthy individuals make a person more or less responsive to lung inflammation following ozone exposures.
Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of cancer through the use of targeted therapies, but what works for one patient might not work for another patient. Certain drugs are n...
PI-88 is a new experimental drug that inhibits tumour growth by reducing the formation of new blood vessels into tumours. Docetaxel is a standard second-line treatment offered to patients ...
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Therapies using arts or directed at the senses.
A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.
Prenatal interventions to correct fetal anomalies or treat FETAL DISEASES in utero. Fetal therapies include several major areas, such as open surgery; FETOSCOPY; pharmacological therapy; INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION; STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and GENE THERAPY.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...