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Epigenetic gene silencing is a hallmark of cancer cells. Two important types of epigenetic changes are DNA methylation and histone modification. These modifications are catalysed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), resulting in chromatin structure changes and gene inactivation. Interestingly, inhibition of these enzymes is known to induce differentiation or apoptosis of cancer cells. Therefore, DNMTs and HDACs have become attractive therapeutic targets. In recent years, many different DNMT and HDAC inhibitors have been developed, and multiple molecular mechanisms through which these agents exert anti-cancer effects have been identified. While a large number of clinical trials are ongoing, hypomethylating agents and HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising for treating several types of cancer. Moreover, developing effective strategies of combining epigenetic therapy with conventional chemotherapy will be one of the major challenges in the future. We briefly review current advances in epigenetic therapies with a focus on recently reported clinical trials.
Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
This article was published in the following journal.
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and its complexity has hindered the development of efficacious treatments targeting all breast cancer subtypes. Many studies have linked the diversity of breas...
A vast majority of human malignancies are associated with ageing, and age is a strong predictor of cancer risk. Recently, DNA methylation-based marker of ageing, known as 'epigenetic clock', has been ...
Epigenetic modifications result in dynamic shifts between transcriptionally active and suppressed states. The potentially reversible nature of epigenetic changes underlies the concept of epigenetic th...
Prostate cancer is one of the most common non-cutaneous malignancies among men worldwide. Epigenetic aberrations, including changes in DNA methylation patterns and/or histone modifications, are key dr...
For 50 years, cancer physicians have relied on just three primary treatment modalities: surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Over that time, enormous progress has been made in understanding ca...
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a type of kidney replacement therapy for patients with chronic kidney disease where the peritoneal membrane is used to filter the blood. Exposure to PD fluid re...
The purpose of this study is to test two quit smoking therapies and to study brain function while each therapy is being used. You will be randomly assigned (like flipping a coin) to one of...
Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of cancer through the use of targeted therapies, but what works for one patient might not work for another patient. Certain drugs are n...
PI-88 is a new experimental drug that inhibits tumour growth by reducing the formation of new blood vessels into tumours. Docetaxel is a standard second-line treatment offered to patients ...
The general aims of this project are (i) to identify predictive epigenetic biomarkers of lung disease severity in Cystic Fibrosis, (ii) to characterize a non-invasive cellular model, spont...
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Therapies using arts or directed at the senses.
A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.
Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...