Sex, death and the (nerve) cell.
Summary of "Sex, death and the (nerve) cell."
Men and women not only look different, but they have different risks of multiple diseases like migraine, neurodegenerative disorders or numerous cancers. Even the nerve cells may die in different ways and exhibit different sensitivity to pro-apoptotic factors. Some of the differences can be explained by the action of sex hormones, but the experiments on four core genotype mouse model, in which XX and XY mice can be of either sex showed that not all differences are due to hormones. An example of a disease with no simple explanation of sex bias is Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, a mitochondrial disease with about 4:1 male to female ratio. The apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells forming an optic disc is a proposed mechanism of the disease pathophysiology. The mechanisms causing different sensitivity of the nerve cells of male and female subjects may be responsible for the gender bias in LHON and merit further studies.
Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, ul. Pawinskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition)
Similar to other parts of the central nervous system, there are two types of programmed cell death during retinal development. In early development, the neuronal progenitor population is affected. In...
Abstract Rationale: Traumatic nerve injuries are a major clinical challenge. Tissue engineering using a combination of nerve conduits and cell based therapies represents a promising approach to nerve...
Cell death is one of the processes that are currently extensively studied. Beside the commonly used terminology regarding cell death, i.e. apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, and cornification, in recent...
Regulated, programmed cell death is crucial for all multicellular organisms. Cell death is essential in many processes, including tissue sculpting during embryogenesis, development of the immune syste...
There is currently a need for imaging methods capable of detecting cell death in tissues and the early onset of tumor cell death resulting from therapy. However, to date, no probe has been approved fo...
Sciatic nerve blocks are frequently used for anesthesia or analgesia for surgery of the lower legs. Currently, if ultrasound is used to find the sciatic nerve, the leg must be raised to l...
This study is a comparison of sensory recovery outcomes from the use of AVANCE and hollow tube conduits for peripheral nerve gap repairs in the hand.
1. To explore the pathology of nerve, vasculature in the normal control nerve 2. Compare the pathology of control nerve and nerve from amputated limb of diabetes
Nerve blocks are an effective way to control pain after surgery. There are two major nerves that provide sensation to the knee: the femoral nerve provides sensation to the front of the kne...
Glaucoma is a worldwide leading cause of blindness. The key feature of this ocular neuropathy is characterized by an excavating optic nerve head. Loss of retinal ganglion cells is the fina...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small. The axons to SCHWANN CELLS ratio is greater in the unmyelinated nerve fibers than that in the myelinated fiber (NERVE FIBERS, MYELINATED) which is 1:1. Usually several axons are surrounded by a single Schwann cell in the unmyelinated nerve fibers. Therefore, each unmyelinated fiber is not completely covered by the MYELIN SHEATH formed by the Schwann cell. Unmyelinated nerve fibers conduct impulses at low velocities. They represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers. They are also found in the spinal cord and brain.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.