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Men and women not only look different, but they have different risks of multiple diseases like migraine, neurodegenerative disorders or numerous cancers. Even the nerve cells may die in different ways and exhibit different sensitivity to pro-apoptotic factors. Some of the differences can be explained by the action of sex hormones, but the experiments on four core genotype mouse model, in which XX and XY mice can be of either sex showed that not all differences are due to hormones. An example of a disease with no simple explanation of sex bias is Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, a mitochondrial disease with about 4:1 male to female ratio. The apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells forming an optic disc is a proposed mechanism of the disease pathophysiology. The mechanisms causing different sensitivity of the nerve cells of male and female subjects may be responsible for the gender bias in LHON and merit further studies.
Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, ul. Pawinskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition)
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A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
A costimulatory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 RECEPTOR. It is closely-related to CD274 antigen; however, its expression is restricted to DENDRITIC CELLS and activated MACROPHAGES.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small. The axons to SCHWANN CELLS ratio is greater in the unmyelinated nerve fibers than that in the myelinated fiber (NERVE FIBERS, MYELINATED) which is 1:1. Usually several axons are surrounded by a single Schwann cell in the unmyelinated nerve fibers. Therefore, each unmyelinated fiber is not completely covered by the MYELIN SHEATH formed by the Schwann cell. Unmyelinated nerve fibers conduct impulses at low velocities. They represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers. They are also found in the spinal cord and brain.
An inhibitory T-lymphocyte receptor that has specificity for CD274 ANTIGEN and PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 LIGAND 2 PROTEIN. Signaling by the receptor limits T cell proliferation and INTERFERON GAMMA synthesis. The receptor also may play an essential role in the regulatory pathway that induces PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
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