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The annual regrowth of deer antlers is a unique case of extensive appendage regeneration in mammals. This review compares basic aspects of antler regeneration with epimorphic regeneration in other vertebrate taxa. The mesenchymal cells that build up the regenerating antler are not derived from dedifferentiated cells in the pedicle stump, but from the proliferation of cells of the pedicle periosteum; and based on different lines of evidence it has more recently been suggested that the pedicle periosteum contains stem cells that are periodically activated to produce a new antler. This constitutes a difference to urodele limb regeneration, where the blastema is (largely) formed from dedifferentiated cells. Antler regeneration involves healing of the large casting wound with no or only minor scarring, making the antler an interesting model for the control of scarring in mammals. Contrary to urodele limb regeneration, antler regrowth does not depend on a functional nerve supply. In our view, a comparative analysis of different regeneration phenomena, including antler regeneration, probably offers the best chance for achieving significant progress in regenerative medicine.
Department of Biology, University of Hildesheim, 31141 Hildesheim, Germany.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition)
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The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
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A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.
A cosmetic technique that uses PLASMA GASES in therapeutic treatment to help achieve skin REJUVENATION or REGENERATION and delay SKIN AGING.
The horn of an animal of the deer family, typically present only in the male. It differs from the HORNS of other animals in being a solid, generally branched bony outgrowth that is shed and renewed annually. The word antler comes from the Latin anteocularis, ante (before) + oculus (eye). (From Webster, 3d ed)
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