Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Within the B-cell follicle of secondary lymphoid organs, germinal center (GC) reactions produce high affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells (PCs) and memory B-cells necessary for the host's defense against invading pathogens. This process of GC formation is reliant on the activation of antigen-specific B-cells by T-cells capable of recognizing epitopes of the same antigenic complex. The unique architecture of secondary lymphoid organs facilitates these initial GC events through the placement of large clonally-diverse B-cell follicles near equally diverse T-cell zones. Antigen-activated B-cells that receive proper differentiation signals at the T-cell border of the B-cell follicle initiate an early GC B-cell transcriptional profile and migrate to follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks within the B-cell follicle to seed the GC reaction. Peripheral to FDCs, GC B-cells rapidly divide in dark zones of the GC, and undergo somatic hypermutation of their immunoglobulin (Ig) variable domain. Newly formed GC B-cell clones then migrate into the GC light zone where they compete for antigen and secondary signals presented by FDCs and a specialized subset of CD4(+) T-cells known as T-follicular helper cells. Survival, proliferative and differentiation signals delivered by mature FDCs and T(FH) cells initiate transcriptional programs that determine if GC B-cells become memory B-cells or terminally differentiated PCs. To prevent oncogenic transformation and/or the escape of autoreactive clones, there are several regulatory mechanisms that restrict GC B-cell proliferation and survival. Here we will detail the recent advances in GC B-cell biology that relate to their generation and fate-determination as well as their pathogenic potential.
Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology and Gwen Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology Research, The University of Chicago , Chicago, Illinois 60637 , USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) signaling acts as a barrier to autoimmunity by promoting anergy, inducing regulatory T cells, and inhibiting effector T cells. However, in vivo effects of A2aR signaling ...
Germinal centers (GCs) form in secondary lymphoid tissues in response to antigenic challenge and are the site of somatic hypermutation, generating GC B cells with increasing affinity for the inciting ...
Natural killer (NK) cells constitute the first line of defense against viruses and cancers cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human virus to be directly implicated in carcinogenesis, and EB...
Secondary lymphoid organs are organized into distinct zones, governed by different types of mesenchymal stromal cells. These stromal cell subsets are critical for the generation of protective humoral ...
Successful vaccination relies on driving the immune response towards high specificity, affinity and longevity. Germinal centers facilitate the evolution of antigen-specific B cells by iterative rounds...
This is a randomized, open-label, multi-center, phase 2 study of RCHOP with or without VELCADE in adult patients with previously untreated non-(Germinal B-Cell-like) GCB Diffuse Large B-ce...
By analogy with the mouse, the activity of control pathways for transposable elements (TE) in foetal primordial germinal cells could prove to be a determinant for fertility in adulthood in...
A Study of the Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, PCI-32765 (Ibrutinib), in Combination With Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Non-Germinal Center B-Cell Subtype of Diffuse Large B-Cell
The purpose of this study is to evaluate if ibrutinib administered in combination with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) improves the clinical ...
It has recently been shown that various HSPs are strongly expressed in B lymphomas. Indeed, HSP90 stabilizes the protein Bcl-6 in diffuse large-cell B lymphomas. Pharmacological inhibition...
This is a randomized, open-label, multi-center, phase 3 study evaluating the efficacy of R-ACVBP and DA-EPOCH-R in patients with newly diagnosed non-germinal b-cell-like diffuse large B-ce...
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which coordinates and administers a program of research, demonstrations, and evaluations of medical technologies and assessments of health care technology.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...