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For a disorder as common as fragile X syndrome, the most common hereditary form of cognitive impairment, the facial features are relatively ill defined. An elongated face and prominent ears are the most commonly accepted dysmorphic hallmarks. We analysed 3D facial photographs of 51 males and 15 females with full FMR1 mutations and 9 females with a premutation using dense-surface modelling techniques and a new technique that forms a directed graph with normalized face shapes as nodes and edges linking those with closest dysmorphism. In addition to reconfirming known features, we confirmed the occurrence of some at an earlier age than previously recorded. We also identified as yet unrecorded facial characteristics such as reduced facial depth, hypoplasticity of the nasal bone-cartilage interface and narrow mid-facial width exaggerating ear prominence. As no consistent craniofacial abnormalities had been reported in animal models, we analysed micro-CT images of the fragile X mouse model. Results indicated altered dimensions in the mandible and both outer and inner skull, with the latter potentially reflecting differences in neuroanatomy. We extrapolated the mouse results to face shape differences of the human fragile X face.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 5 December 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.265.
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of human genetics : EJHG
In 1943 a large family with X-linked mental retardation was described by Martin & Bell. This family had what we know today as fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of intellectual disabil...
Fragile X Syndrome is the most common inherited intellectual disability, and Fragile X Syndrome patients often exhibit motor and learning deficits. It was previously shown that the fmr1 knock-out mice...
The fragile X mental retardation 1 mutant mouse (Fmr1 KO) recapitulates several of the neurologic deficits associated with Fragile X syndrome (FXS). As tactile hypersensitivity is a hallmark of FXS, w...
Objective: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a form of inherited mental retardation in humans that results from expansion of a CGG repeat in the Fmr1 gene. Interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and lip...
Increased expression of Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (Dscam) is implicated in the pathogenesis of brain disorders such as Down syndrome (DS) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Here, we show that th...
This is a single center study at the UC Davis MIND Institute in patients age 3.5-16 years of age with fragile X syndrome (FXS), funded by a National Fragile X Foundation Grant. It is a con...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether NNZ-2566 is safe and well tolerated in the treatment of Fragile X Syndrome in adolescent and adult males.
This randomized, double-blind multiple ascending dose study will evaluate the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of RO4917523 in patients with Fragile X Syndrome. The p...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of riluzole in adults with Fragile X Syndrome.
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study will evaluate the safety and exploratory efficacy and pharmacokinetics of RO4917523 in pediatric patients with fragile...
Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)
A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
An increased number of contiguous trinucleotide repeats in the DNA sequence from one generation to the next. The presence of these regions is associated with diseases such as FRAGILE X SYNDROME and MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY. Some CHROMOSOME FRAGILE SITES are composed of sequences where trinucleotide repeat expansion occurs.
Rare congenital disorder with multiple anomalies including: characteristic dysmorphic craniofacial features, musculoskeletal abnormalities, neurocognitive delay, and high prevalence of cancer. Germline mutations in H-Ras protein can cause Costello syndrome. Costello syndrome shows early phenotypic overlap with other disorders that involve MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM (e.g., NOONAN SYNDROME and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome).
An autosomal dominant aneurysm with multisystem abnormalities caused by increased TGF-BETA signaling due to mutations in type I or II of TGF-BETA RECEPTOR. Additional craniofacial features include CLEFT PALATE; CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS; HYPERTELORISM; or bifid uvula. Phenotypes closely resemble MARFAN SYNDROME; Marfanoid craniosynostosis syndrome (Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome); and EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME.
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Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones become extremely porous, are subject to fracture, and heal slowly, occurring especially in women following menopause and often leading to curvature of the spine from vertebral collapse. Follow and track&n...
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