Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The distribution of and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections are poorly defined in high risk vulnerable populations such as urban slums in tropical sub-Saharan Africa.
In a cross sectional study, children aged 5 years and below who presented with diarrhoea were recruited from selected outpatient clinics in Mukuru informal settlement, and from Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi, over a period of two years (2010--2011). Stool samples were examined for the presence of parasites using direct, formal-ether concentration method and the Modified Ziehl Neelsen staining technique.
Overall, 541/2112 (25.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, with the common parasites being; Entamoeba histolytica, 225 (36.7%),Cryptosporidium spp. 187, (30.5%), Giardia lamblia, 98 (16%).The prevalence of intestinal parasites infection was higher among children from outpatient clinics 432/1577(27.4%) than among those admitted in hospital 109/535 (20.1%) p < 0.001. Infections with E. histolytica, and G. lamblia were higher among outpatients than inpatients (13.8% vs 1.3% p < 0.001 and 5.8% vs 1.3% p < 0.049) respectively, while infection with Cryptosporidium spp. was higher among inpatients than outpatients (15.3% vs 6.7%) respectively p < 0.001. Other parasites isolated among outpatients included Isospora belli, 19 (1.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides, 26 (1.6%), and Hymenolepis nana 12 (0.8%), with the remainder detected in less than ten samples each. HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any parasite than uninfected participants, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 2.04, 95% CI, 1.55-2.67, p < 0.001), and with Cryptosporidium spp. (AOR, 2.96, 95% CI 2.07-4.21, p < 0.001).The inpatients were less likely to be infected with E. histolytica than outpatients (AOR, 0.11, 95% CI, 0.51- 0.24, p < 0.001), but more likely for inpatients to be infected with Cryptosporidium spp. than outpatients (AOR, 1.91, 95% CI, 1.33-2.73, p < 0.001). Mixed parasitic infections were seen in 65 (12.0%) of the 541 infected stool samples.
Intestinal parasitic infections are common in urban informal settlements' environment. Routine examinations of stool samples and treatment could benefit both the HIV infected and uninfected children in outpatient and inpatient settings.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: BMC infectious diseases
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among school aged children (SAC) in Nigeria remains endemic, hence the need for regular surveillance to attract the attention of policy makers. This cross-sectio...
Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution o...
Intestinal coccidian parasites are intracellular protozoa most frequently transmitted during food-borne and water-borne infections. This group of parasites is responsible for acute diarrhoeal illnesse...
The impact of prenatal exposure to parasitic infections and to anthelminthic treatment on antibody responses to routine immunisations given in infancy: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial.
Chronic parasitic infections are associated with active immunomodulation which may include by-stander effects on unrelated antigens. It has been suggested that pre-natal exposure to parasitic infectio...
Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth diseas...
Diarrhoea continues to be a major cause of child deaths. Current treatment of acute watery diarrhoea includes oral rehydration solution (ORS), zinc and continued feeding. The use of zinc i...
Cheap and effective drugs called 'anthelmintics' are routinely administered to children in developing countries to eliminate infections by parasitic helminths. However, the effects of anth...
Efforts are continuing to improve the efficacy of oral rehydration solution in terms of reducing the severity (stool volume) and duration of diarrhoea (enhancement of recovery). Antimicrob...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Smecta at decreasing stool weight, when compared to placebo, in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children.
The investigators aim to investigate whether the routine use of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 co-prescribed with antibiotics reduces the incidence of both Antibiotic associated diarrhoea...
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Clostridium difficile (CDI)
A clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a type of bacterial infection that can affect the digestive system. It most commonly affects people who are staying in hospital. The symptoms of CDI can range from mild to severe and include: diarrhoe...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...