Intestinal parasitic infections in children presenting with diarrhoea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya.

08:00 EDT 27th May 2013 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Intestinal parasitic infections in children presenting with diarrhoea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya."

The distribution of and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections are poorly defined in high risk vulnerable populations such as urban slums in tropical sub-Saharan Africa.
In a cross sectional study, children aged 5 years and below who presented with diarrhoea were recruited from selected outpatient clinics in Mukuru informal settlement, and from Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi, over a period of two years (2010--2011). Stool samples were examined for the presence of parasites using direct, formal-ether concentration method and the Modified Ziehl Neelsen staining technique.
Overall, 541/2112 (25.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, with the common parasites being; Entamoeba histolytica, 225 (36.7%),Cryptosporidium spp. 187, (30.5%), Giardia lamblia, 98 (16%).The prevalence of intestinal parasites infection was higher among children from outpatient clinics 432/1577(27.4%) than among those admitted in hospital 109/535 (20.1%) p < 0.001. Infections with E. histolytica, and G. lamblia were higher among outpatients than inpatients (13.8% vs 1.3% p < 0.001 and 5.8% vs 1.3% p < 0.049) respectively, while infection with Cryptosporidium spp. was higher among inpatients than outpatients (15.3% vs 6.7%) respectively p < 0.001. Other parasites isolated among outpatients included Isospora belli, 19 (1.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides, 26 (1.6%), and Hymenolepis nana 12 (0.8%), with the remainder detected in less than ten samples each. HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any parasite than uninfected participants, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 2.04, 95% CI, 1.55-2.67, p < 0.001), and with Cryptosporidium spp. (AOR, 2.96, 95% CI 2.07-4.21, p < 0.001).The inpatients were less likely to be infected with E. histolytica than outpatients (AOR, 0.11, 95% CI, 0.51- 0.24, p < 0.001), but more likely for inpatients to be infected with Cryptosporidium spp. than outpatients (AOR, 1.91, 95% CI, 1.33-2.73, p < 0.001). Mixed parasitic infections were seen in 65 (12.0%) of the 541 infected stool samples.
Intestinal parasitic infections are common in urban informal settlements' environment. Routine examinations of stool samples and treatment could benefit both the HIV infected and uninfected children in outpatient and inpatient settings.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: BMC infectious diseases
ISSN: 1471-2334
Pages: 243


PubMed Articles [12864 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Efficacy of Handwashing with Soap and Nail Clipping on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in School-Aged Children: A Factorial Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with a...

Effect of zinc added to a daily small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on diarrhoea, malaria, fever and respiratory infections in young children in rural Burkina Faso: a cluster-randomised trial.

Preventive zinc supplementation in the form of tablets or syrup reduces the incidence of diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory tract infections (RTI), but its effect on malaria is inconsistent. When z...

Intestinal Parasite Infections in Symptomatic Children Attending Hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empiric...

Risk factors for hospital admission of Brazilian children with non-rotavirus diarrhoea: a case control-study.

Rotavirus has been the leading cause of severe cases of acute diarrhoea (AD) among children worldwide, however, in the same areas, a large reduction in AD related to rotavirus has been observed after ...

Development of intestinal microflora and occurrence of diarrhoea in sucking foals: effects of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi supplementation.

Almost all foals develop transient diarrhoea within the first weeks of life. Studies indicated different viral, bacterial, and parasitic causes, such as rotavirus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia...

Clinical Trials [5866 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Isoleucine Added ORS in Children With Diarrhoea

Efforts are continuing to improve the efficacy of oral rehydration solution in terms of reducing the severity (stool volume) and duration of diarrhoea (enhancement of recovery). Antimicrob...

Effectiveness of Smecta in the Treatment of Acute Diarrhoea in Children

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Smecta at decreasing stool weight, when compared to placebo, in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children.

The Impact of Anthelmintic Treatment on the Incidence of Diarrheal Disease in Vietnamese School Children

Cheap and effective drugs called 'anthelmintics' are routinely administered to children in developing countries to eliminate infections by parasitic helminths. However, the effects of anth...

Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotics Associated Diarrhoea and Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhoea

The investigators aim to investigate whether the routine use of the probiotic formulation VSL#3 co-prescribed with antibiotics reduces the incidence of both Antibiotic associated diarrhoea...

The Effect of Probiotics on Infections in Toddlers

Probiotics has been known as a dietary supplement for a long period. Recent clinical trials indicate that probiotics might have an effect in preventing common infection diseases in childre...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.

Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.

Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.

Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).

Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.


Relevant Topics

Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...

Clostridium difficile (CDI)
A clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a type of bacterial infection that can affect the digestive system. It most commonly affects people who are staying in hospital.  The symptoms of CDI can range from mild to severe and include: diarrhoe...

Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...

Searches Linking to this Article