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Indication and extent of lymph node dissection in differentiated thyroid carcinoma are still subject to controversy. The overall favourable prognosis, low study numbers and the different biological features of papillary and follicular carcinoma lead to few evidence-based recommendations and a low level of evidence. The different therapeutic and operative strategies are illustrated on the principles of evidence-based medicine. MATERIAL AND
A literature search was carried out in Medline and EMBase using the keywords differentiated / papillary / follicular thyroid carcinoma, lymphadenectomy, lymph node dissection.
Eleven retrospective studies outline the effect of prophylactic vs. no lymph node dissection on tumour relapse rate and long-term survival. Six of these studies combine PTC and FTC. A minor evidence-based recommendation for prophylactic cervico-central lymph node dissection in PTC can be given (evidence level 3). Lymph node dissections involving the cervico-lateral compartment can be recommended in the case of clinically pathological findings at the lymph nodes (evidence level 3). A prophylactic mediastinal lymph node dissection is not indicated (evidence level 4), a therapeutic mediastinal LAD cannot be recommended because of higher morbidity and mortality (evidence level 3).
3 retrospective studies outline the effect of prophylactic lymph node dissection on tumour relapse rate and long-term survival. Based on these, a recommendation for prophylactic cervico-central systematic lymph node dissection can be given for invasive follicular carcinoma (evidence level 3). There is no indication for prophylactic cervico-lateral or mediastinal lymph node dissection (evidence level 3).
The following recommendations can be given in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: In the case of clinically pathological findings in cervical lymph nodes, a systematic lymph node dissection of the lateral and central compartment is indicated (evidence level 3). Prophylactic cervico-central lymph node dissection is recommended for PTC larger than 10 mm in diameter and invasive FTC, a cervico-lateral or mediastinal prophylactic lymph node dissection is not indicated (evidence level 3). In papillary microcarcinoma and minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, a prophylactic lymph node dissection is not indicated (evidence level 3).
Chirurgische Universitätsklinik Freiburg, Allgemein- und Viszeralchirurgie, Freiburg, Deutschland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Zentralblatt fur Chirurgie
The objective of the study was to assess the patterns of central cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) and evaluate the prophylactic central lymph node dissection (CLND) in papillary thyroid carcinoma...
The extent of node dissection in esophageal cancer surgery is usually estimated by the number of resected nodes, irrespective of the area of dissection. The efficacy of lymph node dissection by area w...
In this article, we focus on the role of ultrasound and fine needle aspiration, management of benign nodules, extent of thyroid resection, management of regional lymph node disease, and risk stratific...
The prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis has changed with increased detection of subclinical metastatic LNs. The number and size of metastatic LNs were ...
Purpose To evaluate the relationship between lymph node yield (LNY) from central and lateral neck dissections and risk of recurrence in patients undergoing primary surgery for well-differentiated papi...
Occult lymph node metastasis is common in micro papillary thyroid cancer. However, the role of lymph node dissection in the treatment of microPTC remains controversial. The investigators w...
Patients undergoing groin or axillary Radical lymph node dissection (RLND) or completion lymph node dissection (CLND, after positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for melanoma or breas...
The Evaluation of the Diagnostic Properties of Intra-operative In-situ Thyroglobin Levels of Cervical Lymph Nodes, in the Discrimination Between Benign and Malignant Lymph Nodes in Thyroid Cancer: a Prospective Multicentre Study.
Cytological examination of punctured lymph nodes is the gold standard for confirming metastatic lymph node spread of differentiated thyroid cancers. In order to increase the diagnostic sen...
Aim of present study is to inspect, if the removal alone of sentinel lymph nodes in women with early Cervix Carcinoma lead to, at equal length, overall survival like entire systematic diss...
This study is an open-label, multicenter, randomized, phase II non-inferiority trial (proof of concept study). Its purpose is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of extrafascial hysterecto...
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
The historic designation for scrofula (TUBERCULOSIS, LYMPH NODE). The disease is so called from the belief that it could be healed by the touch of a king. This term is used only for historical articles using the name "king's evil", and is to be differentiated from scrofula as lymph node tuberculosis in modern clinical medicine. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck, just above thecollarbone and is an endocrine gland that make hormones. These Thyroid hormones control the rate of many activities in the body, including how fast the body burns calories and how fast th...
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...