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Oxidative stress is now recognized as a major predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of COPD. Existing therapies for COPD are ineffective at halting disease progression, with bronchodilators being the mainstay of pharmacotherapy, providing symptomatic relief only. It is, therefore, important for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which oxidative stress drives disease pathogenesis to develop novel and more effective therapies. Antioxidant capacity in COPD is substantially reduced as a result of cigarette smoking and exacerbations, with oxidative stress persisting long after the cessation of cigarette smoking or exacerbation, due to the continued production of reactive oxygen species from endogenous sources. We discuss (1) how oxidative stress arises in the lung, (2) how it is neutralized, (3) what genetic factors may predispose to the development of COPD, and (4) how this impacts inflammation and autoimmunity in the development of emphysema and small airways disease. Finally, various strategies have been considered to neutralize the increased oxidative burden present in COPD. This review highlights why current antioxidant strategies have so far failed and what promising alternatives are on the horizon. Moreover, a number of studies have shown that there is no single "magic bullet" to combat oxidative stress, but instead a combination therapy, targeting oxidative stress in the various subcellular compartments, may prove to be more effective in COPD.
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Background and Objectives. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease characterized by airflow limitation. Although airway inflammation and oxidative stress are known to be impo...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an epidemic and progressive health problem which is mainly a consequence of cigarette smoking, and associated with lung inflammation. Anti-inflammatory ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episod...
This study through the long-term observation followed up for 2 years to find the change of the COPD patients blood ROMs, systematically evaluate the relationship between ROMs and the sev...
The purpose of the study is to examine whether Klacid® (Clarithromycin) will induce oxidative stress (stress from oxygen) in healthy subjects. This is done by measuring the content of a p...
High inspiratory oxygen fractions are known to induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The degrading products of oxidative stress induced lipid peroxidation are in part volatile an...
1. Treatment of Hypercholesterolemic patients with niacin will cause a significant decrease in oxidative stress and a decrease in the atherogenecity in blood samples of the patie...
The main objective of the study is to evaluate the predictive factors of the endothelial function to the waning of an acute exacerbation in COPD. It will act to do a multivariate analysis ...
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...
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COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is used for a number of conditions including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which all lead to the airways in the lungs becoming damaged and thus narrower, making inhalation and exhalation harder...