Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (∼1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. © 2013 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:1035-1078, 2013.
Department of Medicine and Liver Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Comprehensive Physiology
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile between meals. Gallbladder motor function is regulated by bile acids via the membrane bile acid receptor, TGR5, and by neurohormonal signals linked to dige...
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating malignancy that is difficult to treat because of its insensitivity to conventional therapies and the inability to detect early tumor formation. Novel molecula...
Bile acid research has gained great momentum since the role of bile acids as key signaling molecules in the enterohepatic circulation was discovered. Their physiological function in regulating their o...
Elevated plasma bile acids after bariatric surgery are thought to explain type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission. Bile acids can bind to and activate the nuclear receptor farnesoid-X receptor (FXR)...
Anastomotic bile leaks are common after orthotopic liver transplant (OLT), and standard treatment consists of placement of a biliary endoprosthesis. The objectives of this study were to identify risk ...
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of bile acid and bile acids sequestrants on GLP-1 Secretion, during a meal, in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
Accumulating evidence suggests that bile acids in our intestines may constitute essential components in the complex mechanisms regulating gut hormone secretion and glucose homeostasis. Thu...
Our primary hypothesis is that bile acid sequestrant colesevelam and the antidiabetic drug metformin potentiates the secretion of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).
Endoscopic cholangiography is a procedure which is performed to image the bile duct and perform therapy like removal of bile duct stones. It is currently standard of care to remove stones ...
The purpose of the study is to determine the best management of bile duct narrowing (stricture) due to inoperable tumors. The bile duct is a tube that carries bile formed in the liver to t...
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...
Astroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Barrett's Esophagus Celiac Disease Cholesterol Crohn's Disease Gastroenterology Hepatitis Hepatology Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Pancreatitis Peptic Ulcer Disease...
formation of bileformation of bile in the liverformation of bileformation of bile juicebile formation in liverbile formation in liverbile formation in liverfomation of bileformation of bile in the liverexcretion pathway of bile juiceFormation of bilebile formationformation of bile saltsFormation on bilebile formation