Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Bile is a unique and vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by the hepatocyte and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium. Approximately 5% of bile consists of organic and inorganic solutes of considerable complexity. The bile-secretory unit consists of a canalicular network which is formed by the apical membrane of adjacent hepatocytes and sealed by tight junctions. The bile canaliculi (∼1 μm in diameter) conduct the flow of bile countercurrent to the direction of portal blood flow and connect with the canal of Hering and bile ducts which progressively increase in diameter and complexity prior to the entry of bile into the gallbladder, common bile duct, and intestine. Canalicular bile secretion is determined by both bile salt-dependent and independent transport systems which are localized at the apical membrane of the hepatocyte and largely consist of a series of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transport proteins that function as export pumps for bile salts and other organic solutes. These transporters create osmotic gradients within the bile canalicular lumen that provide the driving force for movement of fluid into the lumen via aquaporins. Species vary with respect to the relative amounts of bile salt-dependent and independent canalicular flow and cholangiocyte secretion which is highly regulated by hormones, second messengers, and signal transduction pathways. Most determinants of bile secretion are now characterized at the molecular level in animal models and in man. Genetic mutations serve to illuminate many of their functions. © 2013 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:1035-1078, 2013.
Department of Medicine and Liver Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Comprehensive Physiology
The complex architecture of the liver biliary network represents a structural prerequisite for the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of toxic substances through bile ducts. Disorder...
Cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. Lithogenic hepatic bile secretion precedes the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Constitutive androstane rec...
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile between meals. Gallbladder motor function is regulated by bile acids via the membrane bile acid receptor, TGR5, and by neurohormonal signals linked to dige...
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; previously referred to as primary biliary cirrhosis) is a chronic fibrosing cholangiopathy with the signature of an autoimmune disease and features of intrahepatic ch...
Bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of glucose, lipid and energy metabolisms by activating the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled bile a...
The purpose of this study is to examine the efffects of bile acid and bile acids sequestrants on GLP-1 secretion, in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of bile acid and bile acids sequestrants on GLP-1 Secretion, during a meal, in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
Accumulating evidence suggests that bile acids in our intestines may constitute essential components in the complex mechanisms regulating gut hormone secretion and glucose homeostasis. Thu...
The aim of this study is to examine the influence of BAM on postprandial GLP--1 secretion and glucose homeostasis, both with and without bile acid sequestration.
Our primary hypothesis is that bile acid sequestrant colesevelam and the antidiabetic drug metformin potentiates the secretion of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...
Astroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Barrett's Esophagus Celiac Disease Cholesterol Crohn's Disease Gastroenterology Hepatitis Hepatology Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Pancreatitis Peptic Ulcer Disease...
formation of bileformation of bile pigmentsformation of acid secretionhow did liver formed bilebile salt dependent flowbile juice formationbile formationoutline the process of bile secretionformation of bile in liverbile formationformation of bile in the liverformation of bile in the liverformation of bile in the liverformation of bile saltbile juice formation