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Insulin is a major autoantigen in islet autoimmunity and progression to type 1 diabetes. It has been suggested that the insulin B-chain may be critical to insulin autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. INS-IGF2 consists of the preproinsulin signal peptide, the insulin B-chain and eight amino acids of the C-peptide in addition to 138 amino acids from the IGF2 gene. We aimed to determine 1) expression of INS-IGF2 in human pancreatic islets and 2) autoantibodies in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes children and controls. INS-IGF2, expressed primarily in beta cells, showed higher levels of expression in islets from normal compared to donors with either type 2 diabetes (p=0.006) or high HbA1c levels (p<0.001). INS-IGF2 autoantibody levels were increased in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients (n=304) compared to healthy controls (n=355; p<0.001). Displacement with cold insulin and INS-IGF2 revealed that more patients than controls had doubly reactive insulin-INS-IGF2 autoantibodies. These data suggest that INS-IGF2, which contains the preproinsulin signal peptide, the B-chain and eight amino acids of the C-peptide may be an autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. INS-IGF2 and insulin may share autoantibody binding sites, thus complicating the notion that insulin is the primary autoantigen in type 1 diabetes.
Lund University, Sweden;
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of biological chemistry
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A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
An inherited autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by the disorganized formation of new islets in the PANCREAS and PERSISTENT HYPERINSULINEMIA HYPOGLYCEMIA OF INFANCY. It is due to focal hyperplasia of pancreatic ISLET CELLS budding off from the ductal structures and forming new islets of Langerhans. Mutations in the islet cells involve the potassium channel gene KCNJ11 or the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCC8, both on CHROMOSOME 11.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas caused by the release of activated pancreatic enzymes. Common triggers are biliary tract disease and chronic heavy alcohol intake. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation...