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Olfactory hallucinations (OHs), so it has been argued, are prognostic of a poorer outcome, are unpleasant, and cannot be well explained within current theoretical accounts of hallucinations. We examined these and related issues by conducting structured interviews with 51 participants who experienced OHs and who were previously diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We found no relationship between disease severity measures and type or frequency of OHs. As with prior research, we too noted the predominance of negative OHs, but with many reports of positive OHs, and also found significant relationships between frequency of OHs and severity of tactile hallucinations. We then examined whether odor imagery or involuntary memory might account for the presence of OHs, but these possibilities were not well supported. We then explored, using cluster analysis, whether or not our sample was homogenous. Two clusters were of especial interest; one which may reflect a 'sensory dysfunction group' and one characterized by more severe tactile hallucinations. The presence of tactile hallucinations may suggest a further novel cause of OHs, which we discuss. Our data suggest diverse causes for OHs in schizophrenia, none of which are consistent with current models of hallucinations in other modalities.
Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW2109, Australia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Psychiatry research
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A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in MENTAL RETARDATION and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Marked disorders of thought (delusions, hallucinations, or other thought disorder accompanied by disordered affect or behavior), and deterioration from a previous level of functioning.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; olfactory tract, olfactory tubercle, anterior perforated substance, and olfactory cortex. The term rhinencephalon is restricted to structures in the CNS receiving fibers from the olfactory bulb.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
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