miRNA in pluripotent stem cells.

08:49 EDT 24th October 2014 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "miRNA in pluripotent stem cells."

Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into any cell type. The molecular mechanism behind this process is a complex interplay between the transcriptional factors with epigenetic regulators and signaling pathways. miRNAs are an integral part of this regulatory network, with essential roles in pluripotent maintenance, proliferation and differentiation. miRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that target protein-encoding mRNA to inhibit translation and protein synthesis. Discovered close to 20 years ago, miRNAs have rapidly emerged as key regulatory molecules in several critical cellular processes across species. Recent studies have begun to clarify the specific role of miRNA in regulatory circuitries that control self-renewal and pluripotency of both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. These advances suggest a critical role for miRNAs in the process of reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotent cells.

Affiliation

WM Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA; Life Technologies, 5781 Van Allen Way, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Regenerative medicine
ISSN: 1746-076X
Pages: 545-55

Links

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.

Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.

Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.

The process of generating white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS of the BONE MARROW. There are two significant pathways to generate various types of leukocytes: MYELOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes in the blood are derived from MYELOID STEM CELLS, and LYMPHOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOCYTES) are generated from lymphoid stem cells.

Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.

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