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Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved the survival of patients with HIV/AIDS but its impact remains uncertain on the changing prevalence and incidence of neurologic disorders with ensuing effects on mortality.
The prevalence and incidence of neurologic disorders were examined in patients receiving active care in a regional HIV care program from 1998 to 2008. The mortality hazard ratio (HR) was calculated by Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for demographic and clinical variables.
Of 1,651 HIV-infected patients assessed, 404 (24.5%) were identified as having one or more neurologic disorders, while 41% of AIDS-affected persons exhibited neurologic disease. Symptomatic distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP, 10.0%) and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND, 6.2%) represented the most prevalent disorders among 53 recognized neurologic disorders. Patients with at least one neurologic disorder exhibited higher mortality rates (17.6% vs 8.0%, p < 0.0001), particularly AIDS-related deaths (9.7% vs 3.2%, p < 0.0001), compared with those without neurologic disorders. The highest mortality HR was associated with opportunistic infections of CNS (HR 5.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-11.2), followed by HAND (HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.8-5.3) and the presence of any neurologic disorder (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.2). The risk of AIDS-related death with a neurologic disorder was increased by 13.3% per 100 cells/mm(3) decrement in blood CD4+ T-cell levels or by 39% per 10-fold increment in plasma viral load.
The burden and type of HIV-related neurologic disease have evolved over the past decade and despite the availability of cART, neurologic disorders occur frequently and predict an increased risk of death.
From the Division of Neurology (P.V., C.P.) and Statistical Consulting Centre, Department of Dentistry (G.H., J.G.), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; Department of Pharmacology (P.V.), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Sou
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The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort, geographic area, population subgroup, etc. to estimate trends in larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
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