The effect of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine consumption and vegetarian diet on gallstone prevalence.
Summary of "The effect of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine consumption and vegetarian diet on gallstone prevalence."
To investigate the effects of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine consumption and of vegetarian diet on gallstone prevalence in an urban population sample.
A total of 2417 individuals underwent ultrasound examination and completed a standardized questionnaire as part of the EMIL study. Statistical analysis of the data considered the known risk factors of age, female sex, BMI, positive family history and potential confounders, such as alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption and vegetarian diet using multiple logistic regression with variable selection.
The prevalence of gallstones in the population sample was 8% (171 out of 2147). Findings of the study confirmed the classic risk factors of age, female sex, obesity and positive family history. After the variable selection of potential risk factors in a logistic regression that was adjusted for age, female sex, BMI and positive family history, the factors like tobacco [odds ratio (OR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-1.56, P=0.64] and caffeine consumption (
0.42-1.42, P=0.40) as well as vegetarian diet (
0.39-3.35, P=0.81) had no effect on gallstone prevalence. A protective effect against development of gallstones was shown for alcohol consumption (
The factors like tobacco and caffeine consumption as well as vegetarian diet exerted no measurable effect on the prevalence of gallstones. A protective effect was found for alcohol consumption.
aDepartment of Internal Medicine II bDepartment of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Ulm, Germany cLouis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center Brecksville Division, Brecksville, Ohio, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20802339
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0b013e32833efdb2
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, cereals and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.
Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in their DIET, consuming vegetables, grains, and nuts. Some who are called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.
Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.