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Background Basic lexical skills are hypothesised to be relatively preserved in mild dementia, but clinical studies have reported inconsistent results. Methods More than 400 older Catholic nuns, priests and brothers recruited from groups across the USA completed annual evaluations for up to 15 years, died and underwent brain autopsy. Each clinical evaluation included administration of a 20-item word reading test and a 15-item vocabulary test, which were combined to form a composite measure of word knowledge. In a uniform neuropathological examination, Alzheimer's disease pathology was quantified with a composite index of plaques and tangles, and the presence of gross and microscopic cerebral infarctions and Lewy bodies was recorded. Results The post-mortem level of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology was linearly related to rate of decline in word knowledge. Decline was nearly fourfold faster at a relatively high level of pathology (75th percentile) compared with a relatively low level (25th percentile). Neocortical (but not nigral or limbic) Lewy bodies and gross (but not microscopic) cerebral infarction were also associated with a more rapid decline in word knowledge. Effects for word reading and vocabulary were similar, except that gross cerebral infarction was associated with accelerated decline in vocabulary, but not in word reading. Conclusion Common neuropathological changes associated with late-life dementia impair word knowledge in old age, calling into question the use of word knowledge tests to estimate premorbid cognitive ability.
Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
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Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.
The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.
The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)
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