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This study examined the role of the anal papillae of the freshwater (FW) chironomid larva, Chironomus riparius, in ionoregulation under ion-poor conditions. The Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique (SIET) was utilized to characterize the species, direction and rates of inorganic ion transport by the anal papillae following acute and long-term exposure to ion-poor water (IPW). The major inorganic ions in the hemolymph of larvae treated as above were measured using standard ion-selective microelectrodes. The anal papillae of C. riparius are sites of net NaCl uptake and H+ secretion under FW and IPW conditions and are not likely to be a major contributor of K(+) exchange. Acute and long-term exposure to IPW increased total net transport of Na(+), Cl(-) and H(+) by the anal papillae but, the mechanisms underlying the increase under the two conditions were different. Acute IPW exposure increased the magnitude of net ion fluxes at sites along the anal papillae while long-term IPW exposure resulted in increased size of the anal papillae with no change in the magnitude of net ion fluxes. The contribution of the anal papillae to observed alterations of hemolymph ion activities upon exposure to IPW is discussed. Inhibitors of the Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (EIPA) and carbonic anhydrase (methazolamide) provide evidence for Na(+)/H(+) and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange mechanisms in the anal papillae. This study demonstrates that Chironomus riparius larvae employ two different mechanisms to upregulate the total net transport of ions by the anal papillae and these mechanisms are at least partially responsible for regulating hemolymph ion activity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and degradation products are continuously introduced into the environment. To date, there is a lack of information about the effects of pharmaceuticals in spiked t...
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176356.].
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used worldwide as a plasticizer and solvent in many formulations. Based on available toxicological data, it has been classifie...
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Twenty-four healthy hookworm-naive volunteers will be exposed to 50 L3 Necator americanus larvae for a maximum of three times.
Four healthy hookworm-naive volunteers will be exposed to 50 L3 Necator americanus larvae once and will retain infection for up to 2 years.
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Techniques for separating distinct populations of cells.
Infestation with nematode worms of the genus TRICHOSTRONGYLUS. Man and animals become infected by swallowing larvae, usually with contaminated food or drink, although the larvae may penetrate human skin.
A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.
A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)