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To evaluate the occurrence, treatment, and outcome of hydrocephalus complicating community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults.
Case series from a prospective nationwide cohort study from Dutch hospitals from 2006 to 2009.
Hydrocephalus was diagnosed in 26 of 577 episodes (5%) and was classified as communicating hydrocephalus in all but 1 patient. The majority of patients (69%) presented with hydrocephalus on admission. Most common causative bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae (in 14 patients, 54%) and Listeria monocytogenes (in 4 patients, 15%). Thirteen patients died (50%) and 18 had an unfavorable outcome (69%). Hydrocephalus was an independent predictor of death in a multivariate analysis (odds ratio 7.81, 95% confidence interval 2.91-20.8). Six patients underwent an intervention: 2 patients (8%) had serial lumbar punctures; 4 patients (15%) underwent external ventricular CSF catheter placement. Median time from diagnosis of hydrocephalus to CSF shunting was 12 hours (range 0-4 days). All patients who underwent CSF shunting died or had a poor outcome.
Hydrocephalus complicates community-acquired bacterial meningitis in 5% of adult cases and is associated with high fatality rates. A minority of patients underwent neurosurgery and outcome was uniformly poor in these patients.
Department of Neurology, Center of Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 22660, 1100DD Amsterdam, the Netherlands firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
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