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The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endobiotics and numerous xenobiotics including drugs. Therefore it is the standard procedure to test new drug candidates for interactions with CYP enzymes during the preclinical development phase. The purpose of this study was to determine in vitro CYP inhibition potencies of a set of isoquinoline alkaloids to gain insight into interactions of novel chemical structures with CYP enzymes. These alkaloids (n=36) consist of compounds isolated from the Papaveraceae family (n=20), synthetic analogs (n=15), and one commercial compound. Their inhibitory activity was determined towards all principal human drug metabolizing CYP enzymes: 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4. All alkaloids were assayed in vitro in a 96-well plate format using pro-fluorescent probe substrates and recombinant human CYP enzymes. Many of these alkaloids inhibited the CYP3A4 form, with 30/36 alkaloids inhibiting CYP3A4 with at least moderate potency (IC(50)<10μM) and 15/36 inhibiting CYP3A4 potently (IC(50)<1μM). Among them corydine, parfumine and 8-methyl-2,3,10,11-tetraethoxyberbine were potent and selective inhibitors for CYP3A4. CYP2D6 was inhibited with at least moderate potency by 26/34 alkaloids. CYP2C19 was inhibited by 15/36 alkaloids at least moderate potently, whereas CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2C9 were inhibited to a lesser degree. CYP2A6 was not significantly inhibited by any of the alkaloids. The results provide initial structure-activity information about the interaction of isoquinoline alkaloids with major human xenobiotic-metabolizing CYP enzymes, and illustrate potential novel structures as CYP form-selective inhibitors.
School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology
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A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 22.214.171.124.
Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 126.96.36.199.
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