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Esculeoside A (2), a spirosolane steroidal glycoside, is a major constituent isolated from Solanum lycopersicum, a commercial strain of mini tomatoes. The content variability of esculeoside A (2) was examined in mini, midi, and Momotaro tomatoes and various processed tomato products. In the green immature tomato fruit, tomatine (1) is oxidized at C-23 and C-27 to produce esculeoside A (2) in the ripe fruit. Further, esculeoside A (2) is partly converted to 3β-hydroxy-5α-pregn-16-en-20-one 3-O-β-lycotetraoside (6), a pregnane glycoside, in the overripe fruit. Esculeogenin A (3), the sapogenol of 2, is easily converted into 3β,16β-dihydroxy-5α-pregn-20-one (17). Metabolic studies showed excretion of androstane derivatives in the urine of human volunteer subjects after tomato consumption. Esculeogenin A (3) inhibited the accumulation of cholesterol esters in macrophages through its effects on acyl-Co
cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT). Oral administration of esculeoside A (2) to apoE-deficient mice significantly reduced serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol and ameliorated the severity of atherosclerotic lesions.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, 22-1, 4-Chome, Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan, School of Agriculture, Tokai University, 5435, Aso, Kumamoto 869-1404, Japan, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamo
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of natural products
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The aglucon moiety of a saponin molecule. It may be triterpenoid or steroid, usually spirostan, in nature.
A highly toxic saponin occurring in HOLOTHUROIDEA. This marine toxin is an anionic surfactant, hemolyzing ERYTHROCYTES.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain benzoquinones, steroidal saponin, and ribosome-inactivating proteins.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus XANTHOMONAS, causing disease in TOMATO and pepper crops.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain anemarans (POLYSACCHARIDES), hinokiresinol, mangiferin (a xanthone), and timosaponin (a steroidal saponin).
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Erectile Dysfunction Urology Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract and diseases that affect it. Examples include urethritis, urethrostenosis and incontinence. Urology is a su...
Statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are a class of drug used to lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol in the liver. Increased cholesterol levels have been as...