PubMed Journal Database | Current rheumatology reports RSS

23:11 EDT 23rd May 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 165 from Current rheumatology reports


Biomarkers in psoriatic arthritis: recent progress.

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. About a quarter of patients with psoriasis of the skin will develop PsA, although it is currently challenging-if not impossible-to determine a priori which individuals will progress. Identification of biomarkers for screening, disease activity, joint damage, treatment response and comorbidities are therefore perceived as important clinical needs in the field. Over the last few years, several lines of investigation have advance...


Judicious use of biologicals in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that may cause joint destruction. Biological treatments targeting specific cytokines and cell interactions have transformed the outcomes of JIA. This review focuses on the selection of patients for and the timing and selection of biological treatment in JIA. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors remain the first choice for polyarticular JIA, followed by abatacept and tocilizumab. Monoclonal-antibody TNF inhibitors and abatacept are usua...


Imaging strategies for assessing cartilage composition in osteoarthritis.

Efforts to reduce the ever-increasing rates of osteoarthritis (OA) in the developed world require the ability to non-invasively detect the degradation of joint tissues before advanced damage has occurred. This is particularly relevant for damage to articular cartilage because this soft tissue lacks the capacity to repair itself following major damage and is essential to proper joint function. While conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides sufficient contrast to visualize articular cartilage mo...


Pachydermodactyly: A Review.

Synovitis is the characteristic feature of inflammatory joint disease. If synovitis is localized to interphalangeal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis are among the most common differential diagnoses. The absence of pain, tenderness, and limitation of function despite progressive swelling of proximal interphalangeal joints suggests an alternative diagnosis, for example pachydermodactyly (PDD). This is a benign disease, associated with asymptomatic, progressi...


Is Statin-Induced Myositis Part of the Polymyositis Disease Spectrum?

Statin medications have recently been shown to cause not only a toxic myopathy but also an immune-mediated necrotizing myositis. Before the discovery of a specific anti-HMG-CoA reductase antibody occurring in conjunction with a necrotizing myopathy, many of these patients may have been classified as polymyositis. They present similarly with proximal muscle weakness, elevated muscle enzymes, persistence of symptoms despite cessation of the statin, with need for immunosuppression. This article provides an ove...

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New Insights into the Benefits of Exercise for Muscle Health in Patients with Idiopathic Inflammatory Myositis.

With recommended treatment, a majority with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) develop muscle impairment and poor health. Beneficial effects of exercise have been reported on muscle performance, aerobic capacity and health in chronic polymyositis and dermatomyositis and to some extent in active disease and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Importantly, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that improved health and decreased clinical disease activity could be mediated through increased aerobic capaci...


Spondyloarthritis in sub-saharan Africa.

Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is generally uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa, in part because of the rarity of HLA-B27 in this region. However, the relationship between HLA-B27 and SpA, particularly ankylosing spondylitis (AS), is complex. Despite the HLA-B*27:05 risk allele occurring in some West African populations, associated AS is not seen. In fact, most patients with AS are HLA-B27-negative, although there is emerging evidence that another class I HLA molecule, HLA-B*14:03, is associated with AS in black Africa...


Kawasaki disease: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

Kawasaki Disease, a systemic vasculitis of unknown origin with specific predilection for the coronary arteries, is the most common cause of childhood-acquired heart disease in western countries. Despite its world-wide incidence, the pathophysiology of this enigmatic disease is still under investigation. Diagnosis is made on a clinical basis, with supportive laboratory evidence and imaging. Once identified, timely initiation of treatment is imperative in order to quell the inflammatory response and decrease ...


Patient involvement in outcome measures for psoriatic arthritis.

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous inflammatory arthritis with a varied clinical phenotype. There has been considerable international collaboration over recent years to develop and prioritise appropriate disease domains and outcome measures to capture all aspects of this complex disease. It has been recognised that patient-reported measures and physician assessments are complementary and, when used together, allow an improved reflection of disease burden. Taking this concept one step further, the ...


Induction Therapy with Combination TNF Inhibitor and Methotrexate in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

With the introduction of more objective disease activity measures and the development of biological therapies, there were dramatic changes in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The combination therapy with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor and methotrexate (MTX) has unprecedentedly improved prognosis and outcomes, and very low disease activity or remission has been achievable goal in RA. Although the concept of remission induction and maintenance was first discussed in longstanding RA patients,...


The interleukin-17 pathway in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: disease pathogenesis and possibilities of treatment.

Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are pathophysiological enigmas among rheumatic diseases. Substantial clinical advances have been made with new therapy targeting different components of the IL-17 and IL-23 pathways. At the same time, an increase in research on the topic has provided new insights into the potential functional effects of treatments on cell types, pathways, and tissues of interest. Here we review our knowledge of all IL-17 family members, their relationships with the IL-23 pathway, and ...


Management of recurrent thrombosis in antiphospholipid syndrome.

One of the challenges of managing patients with antiphospholipid syndrome is the prevention of rethrombosis (secondary prophylaxis). Risk stratification, i.e. traditional cardiovascular and thrombosis risk factors, systemic autoimmune diseases, antiphospholipid antibody profile, and the intensity of anticoagulation are all relevant to the management of APS patients with recurrent thrombosis. The paper will review "state of the art" strategies for optimizing therapy for APS patients with recurrent thrombosis...


Current developments in the use of biomarkers for juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Use of biomarkers in clinical practice has proved extremely valuable and is a rapidly expanding field. However, despite the huge potential of biomarkers, for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) there are currently no validated paediatric biomarkers available to help with setting up a more tailored approach on which drug choice could be based, to achieve remission early in the course of disease. Early remission reduces burden of disease, limits side effects from toxic and unnecessary medication, and, most im...


Quantitating skin fibrosis: innovative strategies and their clinical implications.

Skin fibrosis is the final outcome of a variety of pathologic processes ranging from aberrant wound healing (keloids) to environmentally induced conditions (nephrogenic systemic fibrosis) to idiopathic or autoimmune conditions (morphea and systemic sclerosis). The quantitative assessment of skin fibrosis has been a major burden of clinical and biomarker research in the field for the past three decades. Here, we review the efforts that reached some sort of validation and the ones we envisage have the potenti...


Anti-interleukin-1 therapy in the management of gout.

Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in humans. Current treatment options to control the pain and inflammation of acute and chronic gout include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine, and corticosteroids. However, patients are commonly unresponsive to, intolerant of, or have contraindications to current treatments. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a major role in mediating gouty inflammation. This role of IL-1 has led investigators to explore a new class of anti-i...


A surprising role for uric Acid: the inflammatory malaria response.

Malaria, which is caused by Plasmodium parasite erythrocyte infection, is a highly inflammatory disease with characteristic periodic fevers caused by the synchronous rupture of infected erythrocytes to release daughter parasites. Despite the importance of inflammation in the pathology and mortality induced by malaria, the parasite-derived factors inducing the inflammatory response are still not well characterized. Uric acid is emerging as a central inflammatory molecule in malaria. Not only is uric acid fou...


New tests to detect antiphospholipid antibodies: anti-domain i Beta-2-glycoprotein-I antibodies.

Beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is the main antigenic target for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), the serological markers of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Domain I (DI) of β2GPI has lately been identified as the main epitope targeted by antibodies reacting against β2GPI. DI is a cryptic epitope, becoming available for autoantibody binding when β2GPI opens from a circular to a fish-hook configuration. Antibodies targeting β2GPI-DI are more frequently detected in patients with a full-blown syndrome th...


Pregnancy morbidity in antiphospholipid syndrome: what is the impact of treatment?

Women with persistently circulating antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have a higher incidence of recurrent abortions, fetal losses, pre-eclampsia, and placental insufficiency. Current treatment of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) during pregnancy with heparin and aspirin can act by preventing clot formation and improving live birth rates, but other obstetric morbidities remain high, especially in patients with a history of thrombotic events. In addition to the classical thrombotic placental eve...


Uric Acid and xanthine oxidoreductase in wound healing.

Chronic wounds are an important health problem because they are difficult to heal and treatment is often complicated, lengthy and expensive. For a majority of sufferers the most common outcomes are long-term immobility, infection and prolonged hospitalisation. There is therefore an urgent need for effective therapeutics that will enhance ulcer healing and patient quality of life, and will reduce healthcare costs. Studies in our laboratory have revealed elevated levels of purine catabolites in wound fluid fr...


Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome.

Renal involvement can be a serious problem for patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, this complication has been poorly recognized and studied. It can be present in patients who have either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus-associated APS. Clinical and laboratory features of renal involvement in APS include hypertension, hematuria, acute renal failure, and progressive chronic renal insufficiency with mild levels of proteinuria that can progress to nephrotic-range proteinuria. The main...


Role of modern imaging techniques in hand osteoarthritis research and clinical practice.

Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a frequent disease, which may lead to considerable pain and physical limitations. However, limited research has been performed in hand OA. Lately, modern imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have gained increasing attention in hand OA clinical research. Both modalities may provide important knowledge about the natural history and pathogenesis of the disease, in addition to serving as potential outcome measures in clinical trials. ...


The crystallization of monosodium urate.

Gout is a common crystal-induced arthritis, in which monosodium urate (MSU) crystals precipitate within joints and soft tissues and elicit an inflammatory response. The causes of elevated serum urate and the inflammatory pathways activated by MSU crystals have been well studied, but less is known about the processes leading to crystal formation and growth. Uric acid, the final product of purine metabolism, is a weak acid that circulates as the deprotonated urate anion under physiologic conditions, and combi...


Mechanisms of spontaneous resolution of acute gouty inflammation.

Acute gout is an auto-inflammatory disease characterized by self-limiting inflammation in response to the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the joints or tissues. Recognition of MSU triggers activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, release of active interleukin (IL)-1β, and amplification of the inflammatory response by the surrounding tissue followed by recruitment and activation of inflammatory leukocytes. The shutdown of this inflammatory response is linked to a number of regulatory events ra...


Clinical and translational potential of MRI evaluation in knee osteoarthritis.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an increasingly important imaging technique in osteoarthritis (OA) research, and is widely used in the ongoing endeavor to understand the pathogenesis of OA and to develop structure and disease-modifying OA drugs. MRI offers semiquantitative, quantitative and compositional evaluation of knee OA, and enables visualization of tissues that are not seen by radiography, including but not limited to cartilage, meniscus, bone marrow lesions, synovitis, and muscles. It is...



The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of rare genetic disorders of glycosaminoglycan catabolism, caused by a deficiency of lysosomal enzymes required for GAG degradation. Incomplete breakdown of glycosaminoglycans leads to progressive accumulation of these substances in many tissues throughout the body. Different residual enzymatic activity can result in different phenotypes of the same MPS disorder, from severe to attenuated. Musculoskeletal manifestations are common across all forms of MPS. Skeleta...

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