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20:39 EST 6th March 2015 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 175 from Journal of helminthology


A new stem nematode, Ditylenchus oncogenus n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida), parasitizing sowthistle from Adriatic coast dunes in southern Italy.

Morphological and molecular analyses of a stem nematode causing a severe disease on infected sowthistle (Sonchus bulbosus) plants, involving the formation of gall-like structures on infected leaves and stems, have led to the description of a new species named Ditylenchus oncogenus n. sp. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by a medium to large body size (all adults more than 1 mm in length); a delicate stylet (9.0-11.0 μm long) with minute, rounded knobs; a long post-vulval uterine sac (c. ...

Friday 22nd August 1072

The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against Hymenolepis microstoma in vivo.

Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections in vivo. Hymenolepis microstoma is a natural parasite of house mice, and provides a convenient model system for the assessment of novel drugs for anthelmintic activity against cestodes. The experiments described in this paper indicate that treatment of H. microstoma infections in mice with the supernatant of papaya latex (PLS), containing active cysteine proteinases, is only minimally efficacious. The sta...

Friday 21st March 1072

Sequence variation in two mitochondrial DNA regions and internal transcribed spacer among isolates of the nematode Oesophagostomum asperum originating from goats in Hunan Province, China.

The present study examined sequence variability in two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) among Oesophagostomum asperum isolates from goats in Hunan Province, China. A portion of the cox1 (pcox1), nad1 (pnad1) genes and the ITS (ITS1+5.8S rDNA+ITS2) rDNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) separately from adult O. asperum individuals and th...


Reduction of benzimidazole resistance in established Haemonchus contortus populations in goats using a single infection with a benzimidazole-susceptible isolate.

An in vivo study in goats evaluated the effect of superimposing a single artificial infection with a benzimidazole (BZ)-susceptible Haemonchus contortus isolate upon established H. contortus populations of known BZ resistance by measuring the phenotypic BZ resistance of eggs collected from faeces before and after re-infection. Two H. contortus isolates, one benzimidazole resistant (BZR) and the other susceptible (BZS), were used to infect worm-free goats. Eight goats were initially infected with 2000 third-...


The life cycle of Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) involving species of bivalve and fish hosts in the intertidal zone of central Chile.

We describe the life cycle of the bucephalid Prosorhynchoides carvajali from the intertidal rocky zone of central Chile. To elucidate the life cycle of this digenean, two mytilid bivalves, Semimytilus algosus and Perumytilus purpuratus, and ten intertidal fish species belonging to the families Blenniidae, Tripterygiidae, Labrisomidae, Kyphosidae and Gobiesocidae were analysed for natural infections. In addition, experimental infections of fish were undertaken and molecular analyses were performed of several...


Evaluation of purified 27.5 kDa protoscolex antigen-based ELISA for the detection of circulating antigens and antibodies in sheep and human hydatidosis.

Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, and the diagnosis of hydatidosis to date remains unresolved despite the development of many serological techniques. The present study aimed to develop an antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using IgG anti-27.5 kDa protoscolex antigen (27.5 PA) for measuring circulating protoscolex antigen (CPA), for comparison with an antibody detection assay, in sera of naturally infected sheep and humans in highly...


Anthelmintic resistance of intestinal nematodes to ivermectin and pyrantel in Estonian horses.

There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged


Helminth parasites in the endangered Ethiopian wolf, Canis simensis.

Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, are an endangered carnivore endemic to the Ethiopian highlands. Although previous studies have focused on aspects of Ethiopian wolf biology, including diet, territoriality, reproduction and infectious diseases such as rabies, little is known of their helminth parasites. In the current study, faecal samples were collected from 94 wild Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains of southern Ethiopia, between August 2008 and February 2010, and were screened for the presence of helm...


Induction of ulcerative colitis in mice influences the course of infection with the nematode Trichuris muris.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of infection with the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris on the course of chemically induced acute ulcerative colitis in CBA/J mice, a strain proven to be highly resistant to infection with T. muris. Each mouse was infected with 50 embryonated eggs of T. muris by oral gavage. Acute colitis was triggered by administering 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for nine consecutive days at different times after infection. Concurrent infection and DS...


The helminth community of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus from the Erro River valley, Navarre, Spain.

The helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, in the Erro River valley (Navarre, Spain) was investigated from a total of 150 mice between February 2001 and July 2002. An overall prevalence of 90.7% was recorded and up to 14 helminth species identified. The most prevalent species was the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus (78.0%), whereas Syphacia stroma was the species with the highest median abundance (19.8). The detection of Calodium hepaticum, Rodentolepis straminea and the larvae of Hydatig...


Differences in the compatibility of infection between the liver flukes Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica in a Colombian population of the snail Galba sp.

Experimental infections of Galba sp. (origin, Colombia) with allopatric isolates of Fasciola hepatica from France or Fascioloides magna from the Czech Republic were carried out during five successive snail generations to determine if this lymnaeid might sustain complete larval development of either parasite. In snails exposed to F. hepatica, 7 of 400 snails harboured several rediae and only two snails contained a small number of free cercariae on day 50 post-exposure. In contrast, the intensity of F. magna ...


Genetic differences in the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae), in Thailand.

This study surveyed the genetic differences among Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) using the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. Partial cytb sequences were determined for 91 worms from eight locations in Thailand. Using morphological techniques, the nematodes were found to be A. cantonensis. Phylogenetic analysis found two main clades, which were subdivided into four subclades (clusters). Haplotype network analysis showed that 11 distinct cytb haplotypes were also present in four groups of ...


Haematological changes in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus infected with Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

To study possible indirect effects of the infection with intestinal helminths, 12 Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) were each experimentally exposed to 100 metacercariae of Echinostoma caproni, and blood samples were taken weekly up to 4 weeks post-exposure for comparison with control rats. Values of haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), platelets (PLT), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (HGB) and haematimatrix indices, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were determined. In addition, leu...


Detection of hydatid-specific antibodies in the serum and urine for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in patients from the Kashmir Valley, India.

Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is usually made by detecting specific antibodies in serum samples. However, collection of blood samples is difficult and may be hazardous and unsafe. Thus, it is important to assess alternative simple methods of sampling body fluids that give similar results. Saliva and urine have been suggested as possible alternatives to detect specific antibodies for the diagnosis of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously published ...


Marker genes for activation of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and RNAi development in the ovine nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta.

The nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep in temperate regions. The development of resistance to the major anthelmintic classes used for its control is a threat to small ruminant farming sustainability. Vaccination is a potential alternative control method for this nematode. Gene datasets can be exploited to identify potential vaccine candidates and these validated further by methods such as RNA interference (RNAi) prior to vaccine trials. Previous reports...


Immunogenic activity of the fish tapeworm Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Trypanorhyncha: Pterobothriidae) in BALB/c mice.

The aim of this study was to verify the immunogenicity of Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) crude protein extract (PH-CPE) in BALB/c mice. The parasites were obtained from Micropogonias furnieri (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae). Groups of six mice were each immunized with 10, 50 or 100 μg of PH-CPE, on days 0 and 35. Both specific IgG and IgE responses were developed after immunization. The immunoblot assay revealed that specific IgG recognizes PH-CPE proteins with two molecular weight ranges...


Morphometric, molecular and ecological analyses of the parasites of the sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo Cetti (Sparidae) from the Spanish Mediterranean: implications for aquaculture.

One of the fish species with the highest potential for aquaculture is the sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo Cetti. Among other aspects, the development of new fish cultures requires studies of potential pathogens that may compromise survival of the fish in captivity. Moreover, both cultured and wild fish can act as sources or reservoirs of pathogens which may negatively affect other well-established cultures. We have studied the parasite fauna of the wild sharpsnout seabream, and monitored the survival...


Metacercarial polymorphism and genetic variation of Paragonimus heterotremus (Digenea: Paragonimidae), and a re-appraisal of the taxonomic status of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus.

Paragonimus heterotremus, which is an important pathogen for human paragonimiasis in Asia, is recognized as having the smallest metacercariae (maximum diameter


The relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.

We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) derived from pineapple (Ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of CPs from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides bakeri. Both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on H. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little effect. Howeve...


Morphological and molecular analyses of larval taeniid species in small mammals from contrasting habitats in Denmark.

Taeniid infections in intermediate hosts manifest themselves as extraintestinal larval stages which, in early development, lack species-specific characteristics. The inability to distinguish infections of zoonotic importance such as Echinococcus multilocularis from other taeniid infections that have mainly veterinary significance stimulated the development of species-specific molecular diagnostics. In this study, the prevalence of taeniid infections in potential intermediate hosts was evaluated using both m...


Is Opisthorchis viverrini an avian liver fluke?

Recently, in the Journal of Helminthology (May 2013), Dao et al. reported that Opisthorchis viverrini-like flukes were found in the bile duct of domestic ducks in Vietnam. They stated that this is the first record of Opisthorchis sp. in birds in Vietnam. However, three Opisthorchis species - O. cheelis, O. longissimus and O. parageminus - in birds in Vietnam were described by Le in 2000. Amongst these, O. parageminus was first reported, by Oshmarin in 1970, as a new Opisthorchis species found in domestic du...


Why are the prevalence and diversity of helminths in the endemic Pyrenean brook newt Calotriton asper (Amphibia, Salamandridae) so low?

A cornerstone in parasitology is why some species or populations are more parasitized than others. Here we examine the influence of host characteristics and habitat on parasite prevalence. We studied the helminths parasitizing the Pyrenean brook newt Calotriton asper (n= 167), paying special attention to the relationship between parasites and ecological factors such as habitat, sex, ontogeny, body size and age of the host. We detected two species of parasites, Megalobatrachonema terdentatum (Nematoda: Kath...


Response to manuscript 'Is Opisthorchis viverrini an avian liver fluke?'


A description of two new species of Ligophorus Euzet & Suriano, (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from Malaysian mugilid fish using principal component analysis and numerical taxonomy.

Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. and Ligophorus kederai n. sp. are described from Liza subviridis Valenciennes, 1836 and Valamugil buchanani Bleeker, 1854, respectively. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. has fenestrated ventral anchors, while in L. belanaki n. sp. the ventral anchor is not fenestrated. Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. is similar to L. careyensis, one of its coexisting congeners, in the overall shape and size of hard parts, but differs in having a flat median piece in the structure of the AMP (antero-median pro...


Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morp...

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