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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of helminthology RSS

03:17 EDT 16th April 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 162 from Journal of helminthology


Detection of hydatid-specific antibodies in the serum and urine for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in patients from the Kashmir Valley, India.

Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is usually made by detecting specific antibodies in serum samples. However, collection of blood samples is difficult and may be hazardous and unsafe. Thus, it is important to assess alternative simple methods of sampling body fluids that give similar results. Saliva and urine have been suggested as possible alternatives to detect specific antibodies for the diagnosis of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously published...


Marker genes for activation of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and RNAi development in the ovine nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta.

The nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep in temperate regions. The development of resistance to the major anthelmintic classes used for its control is a threat to small ruminant farming sustainability. Vaccination is a potential alternative control method for this nematode. Gene datasets can be exploited to identify potential vaccine candidates and these validated further by methods such as RNA interference (RNAi) prior to vaccine trials. Previous reports...


Immunogenic activity of the fish tapeworm Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Trypanorhyncha: Pterobothriidae) in BALB/c mice.

The aim of this study was to verify the immunogenicity of Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) crude protein extract (PH-CPE) in BALB/c mice. The parasites were obtained from Micropogonias furnieri (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae). Groups of six mice were each immunized with 10, 50 or 100 μg of PH-CPE, on days 0 and 35. Both specific IgG and IgE responses were developed after immunization. The immunoblot assay revealed that specific IgG recognizes PH-CPE proteins with two molecular weight ranges...


Morphometric, molecular and ecological analyses of the parasites of the sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo Cetti (Sparidae) from the Spanish Mediterranean: implications for aquaculture.

One of the fish species with the highest potential for aquaculture is the sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo Cetti. Among other aspects, the development of new fish cultures requires studies of potential pathogens that may compromise survival of the fish in captivity. Moreover, both cultured and wild fish can act as sources or reservoirs of pathogens which may negatively affect other well-established cultures. We have studied the parasite fauna of the wild sharpsnout seabream, and monitored the survival...


Metacercarial polymorphism and genetic variation of Paragonimus heterotremus (Digenea: Paragonimidae), and a re-appraisal of the taxonomic status of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus.

Paragonimus heterotremus, which is an important pathogen for human paragonimiasis in Asia, is recognized as having the smallest metacercariae (maximum diameter


The relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.

We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) derived from pineapple (Ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of CPs from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides bakeri. Both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on H. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little effect. Howeve...


Morphological and molecular analyses of larval taeniid species in small mammals from contrasting habitats in Denmark.

Taeniid infections in intermediate hosts manifest themselves as extraintestinal larval stages which, in early development, lack species-specific characteristics. The inability to distinguish infections of zoonotic importance such as Echinococcus multilocularis from other taeniid infections that have mainly veterinary significance stimulated the development of species-specific molecular diagnostics. In this study, the prevalence of taeniid infections in potential intermediate hosts was evaluated using both m...


Is Opisthorchis viverrini an avian liver fluke?

Recently, in the Journal of Helminthology (May 2013), Dao et al. reported that Opisthorchis viverrini-like flukes were found in the bile duct of domestic ducks in Vietnam. They stated that this is the first record of Opisthorchis sp. in birds in Vietnam. However, three Opisthorchis species - O. cheelis, O. longissimus and O. parageminus - in birds in Vietnam were described by Le in 2000. Amongst these, O. parageminus was first reported, by Oshmarin in 1970, as a new Opisthorchis species found in domestic du...


Why are the prevalence and diversity of helminths in the endemic Pyrenean brook newt Calotriton asper (Amphibia, Salamandridae) so low?

A cornerstone in parasitology is why some species or populations are more parasitized than others. Here we examine the influence of host characteristics and habitat on parasite prevalence. We studied the helminths parasitizing the Pyrenean brook newt Calotriton asper (n= 167), paying special attention to the relationship between parasites and ecological factors such as habitat, sex, ontogeny, body size and age of the host. We detected two species of parasites, Megalobatrachonema terdentatum (Nematoda: Kath...


Response to manuscript 'Is Opisthorchis viverrini an avian liver fluke?'


A description of two new species of Ligophorus Euzet & Suriano, (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from Malaysian mugilid fish using principal component analysis and numerical taxonomy.

Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. and Ligophorus kederai n. sp. are described from Liza subviridis Valenciennes, 1836 and Valamugil buchanani Bleeker, 1854, respectively. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. has fenestrated ventral anchors, while in L. belanaki n. sp. the ventral anchor is not fenestrated. Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. is similar to L. careyensis, one of its coexisting congeners, in the overall shape and size of hard parts, but differs in having a flat median piece in the structure of the AMP (antero-median pro...


Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morp...


Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five v...


Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.

Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the...


Paradiplozoon vaalense n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplozoidae) from the gills of moggel, Labeo umbratus (Smith, 1841), in the Vaal River System, South Africa.

An unidentified monogenean diplozoid species was collected from the gills of moggel in the Vaal River and Vaal Dam, South Africa. Specimens were removed from gills of the hosts and observed using light and electron microscopy to compare these diplozoids with known species. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal gene was amplified, sequenced and compared to that of other diplozoid taxa. Morphological species delimitation was used to determine the identity of these diplozoids, but they...


Behavioural changes in the flour beetle Tribolium confusum infected with the spirurid nematode Protospirura muricola.

We examined changes to the behaviour of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum, infected with the rodent stomach worm, the spirurid Protospirura muricola, in the context of the 'Behavioural Manipulation Hypothesis'. Trobolium confusum infected with the third-stage infective larvae of P. muricola showed consistently altered patterns of behaviour. Relative to uninfected beetles, over a measured time period, beetles infected with P. muricola were likely to move over a shorter distance, when moving their speed of mo...


Parasites of the grouper fish Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae) as potential environmental indicators in Indonesian coastal ecosystems.

A total of 195 Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) were studied for fish parasites from Javanese (Segara Anakan lagoon) and Balinese waters. Up to 25 different parasite species belonging to the following taxa: one Ciliata, one Microsporea, five Digenea, one Monogenea, four Cestoda, four Nematoda, one Acanthocephala, one Hirudinea and seven Crustacea were identified with four new host and locality records. The dominant parasites included the monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis (53.3-97.1%), the nem...


Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) in eastern Iran.

With the aim of genotyping Echinococcus granulosus cysts found in Iranian dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius), 50 cysts of E. granulosus were collected from five geographical regions in Iran. Cysts were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Morphological criteria using rostellar hook dimension...


Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in...


A Taenia crassiceps metacestode factor enhances ovarian follicle atresia and oocyte degeneration in female mice.

The histopathological effects of Taenia crassiceps infection or T. crassiceps metacestode factor inoculation on the mouse ovary were determined using six female mice in three groups: infected mice, mice inoculated with the metacestode factor and control mice. The control group was subcutaneously inoculated with healthy peritoneal fluid. The infected group was intraperitoneally inoculated with 40 T. crassiceps metacestodes, and the metacestode factor group was subcutaneously inoculated with T. crassiceps met...


Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multicep...


Proline modulates the effect of bisphosphonate on calcium levels and adenosine triphosphate production in cell lines derived from bovine Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.

Bisphosphonates have been proposed as pharmacological agents against parasite and cancer cell growth. The effect of these compounds on helminthic cell viability and acellular compartment morphology, however, has not yet been studied. The effects of different types of bisphosphonates, namely etidronate (EHDP), pamidronate (APD), alendronate (ABP), ibandronate (IB) and olpadronate (OPD), and their interaction with amiloride, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (D3) and proline were evaluated on a cell line derived...


Phenotypes of intermediate forms of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in buffaloes from Central Punjab, Pakistan.

Fascioliasis is an important food-borne parasitic disease caused by the two trematode species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The phenotypic features of fasciolid adults and eggs infecting buffaloes inhabiting the Central Punjab area, Pakistan, have been studied to characterize fasciolid populations involved. Morphometric analyses were made with a computer image analysis system (CIAS) applied on the basis of standardized measurements. Since it is the first study of this kind undertaken in Pakista...


Regulatory role of adrenergic neurotransmitters on the spontaneous muscular activity in the ruminant trematode Paramphistomum cervi (Paramphistomatidae).

The neuromuscular system of helminths is an important area for target identification and drug development. Many anthelmintics, namely ivermectin, levamisole, piperazine, pyrantel, praziquantel and organophosphates, produce paralysis of helminths by affecting their neuromuscular systems. The neuromuscular system of helminths is also an important area of research to identify some of the important differences between the neuromuscular physiology of helminths and mammals. The identification of differences would...


Recurrent paediatric pinworm infection of the vagina as a potential reservoir for Enterobius vermicularis.

Enterobius vermicularis infection remains one of the most common parasitic infections, particularly prevalent in children. Enterobiasis, although not usually dangerous, may cause significant morbidity. Elimination of the parasite from a family or an institution often poses problems, either because of an incomplete cure or re-infection. While there have been limited reports of ectopic enterobiasis throughout the world, ours is probably one of the rarest reports of recurrent vaginal E. vermicularis infection...

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