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14:02 EDT 21st August 2014 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 171 from Journal of helminthology

1054991

The life cycle of Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) involving species of bivalve and fish hosts in the intertidal zone of central Chile.

We describe the life cycle of the bucephalid Prosorhynchoides carvajali from the intertidal rocky zone of central Chile. To elucidate the life cycle of this digenean, two mytilid bivalves, Semimytilus algosus and Perumytilus purpuratus, and ten intertidal fish species belonging to the families Blenniidae, Tripterygiidae, Labrisomidae, Kyphosidae and Gobiesocidae were analysed for natural infections. In addition, experimental infections of fish were undertaken and molecular analyses were performed of several...

1048982

Evaluation of purified 27.5 kDa protoscolex antigen-based ELISA for the detection of circulating antigens and antibodies in sheep and human hydatidosis.

Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, and the diagnosis of hydatidosis to date remains unresolved despite the development of many serological techniques. The present study aimed to develop an antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using IgG anti-27.5 kDa protoscolex antigen (27.5 PA) for measuring circulating protoscolex antigen (CPA), for comparison with an antibody detection assay, in sera of naturally infected sheep and humans in highly...

1048823

Anthelmintic resistance of intestinal nematodes to ivermectin and pyrantel in Estonian horses.

There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged

1048714

Helminth parasites in the endangered Ethiopian wolf, Canis simensis.

Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, are an endangered carnivore endemic to the Ethiopian highlands. Although previous studies have focused on aspects of Ethiopian wolf biology, including diet, territoriality, reproduction and infectious diseases such as rabies, little is known of their helminth parasites. In the current study, faecal samples were collected from 94 wild Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains of southern Ethiopia, between August 2008 and February 2010, and were screened for the presence of helm...

1048624

Induction of ulcerative colitis in mice influences the course of infection with the nematode Trichuris muris.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of infection with the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris on the course of chemically induced acute ulcerative colitis in CBA/J mice, a strain proven to be highly resistant to infection with T. muris. Each mouse was infected with 50 embryonated eggs of T. muris by oral gavage. Acute colitis was triggered by administering 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for nine consecutive days at different times after infection. Concurrent infection and DS...

1048551

The helminth community of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus from the Erro River valley, Navarre, Spain.

The helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, in the Erro River valley (Navarre, Spain) was investigated from a total of 150 mice between February 2001 and July 2002. An overall prevalence of 90.7% was recorded and up to 14 helminth species identified. The most prevalent species was the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus (78.0%), whereas Syphacia stroma was the species with the highest median abundance (19.8). The detection of Calodium hepaticum, Rodentolepis straminea and the larvae of Hydatig...

1046543

Differences in the compatibility of infection between the liver flukes Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica in a Colombian population of the snail Galba sp.

Experimental infections of Galba sp. (origin, Colombia) with allopatric isolates of Fasciola hepatica from France or Fascioloides magna from the Czech Republic were carried out during five successive snail generations to determine if this lymnaeid might sustain complete larval development of either parasite. In snails exposed to F. hepatica, 7 of 400 snails harboured several rediae and only two snails contained a small number of free cercariae on day 50 post-exposure. In contrast, the intensity of F. magna...

1030420

Genetic differences in the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae), in Thailand.

This study surveyed the genetic differences among Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) using the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. Partial cytb sequences were determined for 91 worms from eight locations in Thailand. Using morphological techniques, the nematodes were found to be A. cantonensis. Phylogenetic analysis found two main clades, which were subdivided into four subclades (clusters). Haplotype network analysis showed that 11 distinct cytb haplotypes were also present in four groups of...

1017452

Haematological changes in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus infected with Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

To study possible indirect effects of the infection with intestinal helminths, 12 Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) were each experimentally exposed to 100 metacercariae of Echinostoma caproni, and blood samples were taken weekly up to 4 weeks post-exposure for comparison with control rats. Values of haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), platelets (PLT), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (HGB) and haematimatrix indices, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were determined. In addition, leu...

923850

Detection of hydatid-specific antibodies in the serum and urine for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in patients from the Kashmir Valley, India.

Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is usually made by detecting specific antibodies in serum samples. However, collection of blood samples is difficult and may be hazardous and unsafe. Thus, it is important to assess alternative simple methods of sampling body fluids that give similar results. Saliva and urine have been suggested as possible alternatives to detect specific antibodies for the diagnosis of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously published...

856375

Marker genes for activation of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and RNAi development in the ovine nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta.

The nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep in temperate regions. The development of resistance to the major anthelmintic classes used for its control is a threat to small ruminant farming sustainability. Vaccination is a potential alternative control method for this nematode. Gene datasets can be exploited to identify potential vaccine candidates and these validated further by methods such as RNA interference (RNAi) prior to vaccine trials. Previous reports...

826451

Immunogenic activity of the fish tapeworm Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Trypanorhyncha: Pterobothriidae) in BALB/c mice.

The aim of this study was to verify the immunogenicity of Pterobothrium heteracanthum (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) crude protein extract (PH-CPE) in BALB/c mice. The parasites were obtained from Micropogonias furnieri (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae). Groups of six mice were each immunized with 10, 50 or 100 μg of PH-CPE, on days 0 and 35. Both specific IgG and IgE responses were developed after immunization. The immunoblot assay revealed that specific IgG recognizes PH-CPE proteins with two molecular weight ranges...

826393

Morphometric, molecular and ecological analyses of the parasites of the sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo Cetti (Sparidae) from the Spanish Mediterranean: implications for aquaculture.

One of the fish species with the highest potential for aquaculture is the sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo Cetti. Among other aspects, the development of new fish cultures requires studies of potential pathogens that may compromise survival of the fish in captivity. Moreover, both cultured and wild fish can act as sources or reservoirs of pathogens which may negatively affect other well-established cultures. We have studied the parasite fauna of the wild sharpsnout seabream, and monitored the survival...

776110

Metacercarial polymorphism and genetic variation of Paragonimus heterotremus (Digenea: Paragonimidae), and a re-appraisal of the taxonomic status of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus.

Paragonimus heterotremus, which is an important pathogen for human paragonimiasis in Asia, is recognized as having the smallest metacercariae (maximum diameter

733866

The relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.

We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) derived from pineapple (Ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of CPs from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides bakeri. Both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on H. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little effect. Howeve...

717667

Morphological and molecular analyses of larval taeniid species in small mammals from contrasting habitats in Denmark.

Taeniid infections in intermediate hosts manifest themselves as extraintestinal larval stages which, in early development, lack species-specific characteristics. The inability to distinguish infections of zoonotic importance such as Echinococcus multilocularis from other taeniid infections that have mainly veterinary significance stimulated the development of species-specific molecular diagnostics. In this study, the prevalence of taeniid infections in potential intermediate hosts was evaluated using both m...

717615

Is Opisthorchis viverrini an avian liver fluke?

Recently, in the Journal of Helminthology (May 2013), Dao et al. reported that Opisthorchis viverrini-like flukes were found in the bile duct of domestic ducks in Vietnam. They stated that this is the first record of Opisthorchis sp. in birds in Vietnam. However, three Opisthorchis species - O. cheelis, O. longissimus and O. parageminus - in birds in Vietnam were described by Le in 2000. Amongst these, O. parageminus was first reported, by Oshmarin in 1970, as a new Opisthorchis species found in domestic du...

717562

Why are the prevalence and diversity of helminths in the endemic Pyrenean brook newt Calotriton asper (Amphibia, Salamandridae) so low?

A cornerstone in parasitology is why some species or populations are more parasitized than others. Here we examine the influence of host characteristics and habitat on parasite prevalence. We studied the helminths parasitizing the Pyrenean brook newt Calotriton asper (n= 167), paying special attention to the relationship between parasites and ecological factors such as habitat, sex, ontogeny, body size and age of the host. We detected two species of parasites, Megalobatrachonema terdentatum (Nematoda: Kath...

717543

Response to manuscript 'Is Opisthorchis viverrini an avian liver fluke?'

705736

A description of two new species of Ligophorus Euzet & Suriano, (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from Malaysian mugilid fish using principal component analysis and numerical taxonomy.

Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. and Ligophorus kederai n. sp. are described from Liza subviridis Valenciennes, 1836 and Valamugil buchanani Bleeker, 1854, respectively. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. has fenestrated ventral anchors, while in L. belanaki n. sp. the ventral anchor is not fenestrated. Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. is similar to L. careyensis, one of its coexisting congeners, in the overall shape and size of hard parts, but differs in having a flat median piece in the structure of the AMP (antero-median pro...

685693

Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morp...

664322

Urogenital schistosomiasis in women of reproductive age and pregnant mothers in Kwale County, Kenya.

Generally, women residing in areas endemic for urinary schistosomiasis may suffer from female genital schistosomiasis which is acquired during childhood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium in women of reproductive age (16-45 years) and to investigate whether S. haematobium had any effect on kidney function. A total of 394 women of known pregnancy status (158 pregnant and 236 non-pregnant) were recruited from five v...

664269

Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.

Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the...

626131

Paradiplozoon vaalense n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplozoidae) from the gills of moggel, Labeo umbratus (Smith, 1841), in the Vaal River System, South Africa.

An unidentified monogenean diplozoid species was collected from the gills of moggel in the Vaal River and Vaal Dam, South Africa. Specimens were removed from gills of the hosts and observed using light and electron microscopy to compare these diplozoids with known species. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal gene was amplified, sequenced and compared to that of other diplozoid taxa. Morphological species delimitation was used to determine the identity of these diplozoids, but they...

589844

Behavioural changes in the flour beetle Tribolium confusum infected with the spirurid nematode Protospirura muricola.

We examined changes to the behaviour of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum, infected with the rodent stomach worm, the spirurid Protospirura muricola, in the context of the 'Behavioural Manipulation Hypothesis'. Trobolium confusum infected with the third-stage infective larvae of P. muricola showed consistently altered patterns of behaviour. Relative to uninfected beetles, over a measured time period, beetles infected with P. muricola were likely to move over a shorter distance, when moving their speed of mo...


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