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PubMed Journal Database | Journal of helminthology RSS

20:26 EDT 27th August 2016 | BioPortfolio

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Showing PubMed Articles 1–25 of 189 from Journal of helminthology

Parasites of freshwater fishes and the Great American Biotic Interchange: a bridge too far?

We examine the extent to which adult helminths of freshwater fishes have been part of the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), by integrating information in published studies and new data from Panama with fish biogeography and Earth history of Middle America. The review illustrates the following: (1) the helminth fauna south of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and especially south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, shows strong Neotropical affinities; (2) host-parasite associations follow principles of the...

Canine echinococcosis: the predominance of immature eggs in adult tapeworms of Echinococcus granulosus in stray dogs from Tunisia.

Canine echinococcosis is caused by the adult tapeworm of Echinococcus granulosus. As intermediate hosts, humans and livestock become infected following ingestion of eggs that are passed in the faeces of dogs. Mature eggs develop into hydatid cysts in different organs, leading to hydatid disease, which is a serious public health problem. In the present study, we investigated the proportion of mature eggs of E. granulosus in 140 dogs from three regions of Tunisia. The results showed the predominance of immatu...

Interactions between mefloquine and the anti-fibrotic drug silymarin on Schistosoma mansoni infections in mice.

The present study tests the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of silymarin alone or combined with mefloquine on acute schistosomiasis by evaluating parasitological, histopathological, biochemical and immunological parameters. Male CDI Swiss mice were divided into seven groups, which included healthy controls, mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni or treated with silymarin (140 mg/kg body weight) or mefloquine (400 mg/kg body weight), or mice treated with a combination of both drugs and uninfect...

Molecular identification of Ancylostoma species from dogs and an assessment of zoonotic risk in low-income households, São Paulo State, Brazil.

Hookworm infection stands out for its worldwide distribution and for its veterinary and public health relevance. Based on copromicroscopic examinations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, we assessed, respectively, the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the identification of canine hookworm species in faeces recovered from 278 dogs living in households of an inland municipality of São Paulo State, Brazil. Intestinal parasites were found in 67.3% of dogs and h...

Efficacy of pharmacokinetic interactions between piperonyl butoxide and albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in goats.

To test the hypothesis that modulation of hepatic microsomal sulphoxidation and sulphonation by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide could increase bioavailability of albendazole, the present study was undertaken to understand the pharmacokinetics of albendazole in goats at a dose of 7.5 mg kg- 1 body weight with and without co-administration with piperonyl butoxide at 63.0 mg kg- 1 body weight. Plasma albendazole sulphoxide metabolite, the anthelmintically active moiety, reached its maxim...

Immune recognition of excretory and secretory products of the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi in cattle and human sera.

Excretory-secretory (ES) products of nematodes and other helminths are the first molecules to interact with cell surfaces and soluble proteins within the host. In the present study, ES products of the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi were investigated as a model for Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness. These products were collected from adult and larval stages in vitro over a period of 7 days, to compare their immunological recognition in cattle and human sera, infected with spec...

Two new species of Rhinebothrium (Cestoda: Rhinebothriidea) from granulated guitarfish Glaucostegus granulatus in the Gulf of Oman.

During a study of the rhinebothriideans of rays in the Gulf of Oman, two new species of Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890, Rhinebothrium kruppi sp. n. and R. persicum sp. n., were identified in Glaucostegus granulatus (Cuvier). Some significant features that distinguish R. kruppi sp. n. from R. persicum sp. n. include: scolex characteristics (hinged with 42-46 loculi vs. fusiform with 68-62 loculi), number of testes (4-5 vs. 20-27), genital pore position (61.1-76.9% of proglottid length vs. 47.2-63.3%), ovarian mo...

Genetic diversity and population structure of Synthesium pontoporiae (Digenea, Brachycladiidae) linked to its definitive host stocks, the endangered Franciscana dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei (Pontoporiidae) off the coast of Brazil and Argentina.

Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844) is an endangered small cetacean endemic to South America with four Franciscana Management Areas (FMA) recognized as different population stocks. The role of the intestinal parasite Synthesium pontoporiae (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) as a possible biological marker to differentiate P. blainvillei stocks was evaluated using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers. Internal transcribed sequence 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) regions of S. pontoporiae did not show intra...

A description of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) veropesoi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the intestine of the silver croaker fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the east coast of Brazil.

Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) is considered piscivorous and is a generalist species endemic to the Amazon region. This fish is an important part of the natural ecosystems in which it occurs and provides basic functional components in the food web. The genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 is distributed worldwide and parasitizes fish and turtles, but there are few reports of parasites of this genus in South America, due to the high diversity of fish that can b...

Steinernema jeffreyense n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa - ERRATUM.

Morphometric and molecular analyses of two digenean species from the mullet: Haplosplanchnus pachysomus (Eysenhardt, 1892) from Vietnam and Provitellotrema crenimugilis Pan, 1984 from the Russian southern Far East.

Adults of Haplosplanchnus pachysomus (Eysenhardt, 1829) were found in the intestine of Liza engeli (Bleeker) from the coastal waters of Cat Ba Island, Ha Long Bay, northern Vietnam. Additionally, Provitellotrema crenimugilis Pan, 1984 was discovered in Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel) from Vostok Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, southern Far-East Russia. Data concerning morphology, 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA of these worms were obtained. The molecular data confirmed the validity of these species and showed ...

Morphological, molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the spirurid nematode Stegophorus macronectes (Johnston & Mawson, 1942).

Stegophorus macronectes (Johnston & Mawson, 1942) is a gastrointestinal parasite found in Antarctic seabirds. The original description of the species, which was based only on females, is poor and fragmented with some unclear diagnostic characters. This study provides new morphometric and molecular data on this previously poorly described parasite. Nuclear rDNA sequences (18S, 5.8S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions) were isolated from S. macronectes specimens collected from the chinstrap pen...

Can the same species of Platynosomum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) infect both mammalian and avian hosts?

The importance of platynosomiasis has increased in feline veterinary practice, but aspects related to the specificity of Platynosomum spp. in definitive hosts requires further study. Although morphological traits suggest that the same species, P. illiciens, may infect both birds and mammals, the synonymies previously proposed have not been widely accepted, likely because host specificity is assumed. In addition, the name P. fastosum has frequently been used for parasites recovered from mammals. In the prese...

Morphometrics and molecular analysis of Ozolaimus linstowi n. sp. (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) from the green lizard Iguana iguana.

Ozolaimus linstowi n. sp. is described from the large intestine of Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758 from Mexico. The present species can be easily distinguished from O. megatyphlon and O. cirratus by the presence of a long and slender pharynx not divided into sections, more similar to the remaining two species, O. monhystera and O. ctenosauri. Ozolaimus linstowi n. sp. can be differentiated from O. monhystera by the shorter spicule length and smaller body size of both males and females. Males of O. linstowi n. ...

A new stem nematode, Ditylenchus oncogenus n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida), parasitizing sowthistle from Adriatic coast dunes in southern Italy.

Morphological and molecular analyses of a stem nematode causing a severe disease on infected sowthistle (Sonchus bulbosus) plants, involving the formation of gall-like structures on infected leaves and stems, have led to the description of a new species named Ditylenchus oncogenus n. sp. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by a medium to large body size (all adults more than 1 mm in length); a delicate stylet (9.0-11.0 μm long) with minute, rounded knobs; a long post-vulval uterine sac (c. ...

The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against Hymenolepis microstoma in vivo.

Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections in vivo. Hymenolepis microstoma is a natural parasite of house mice, and provides a convenient model system for the assessment of novel drugs for anthelmintic activity against cestodes. The experiments described in this paper indicate that treatment of H. microstoma infections in mice with the supernatant of papaya latex (PLS), containing active cysteine proteinases, is only minimally efficacious. The sta...

Sequence variation in two mitochondrial DNA regions and internal transcribed spacer among isolates of the nematode Oesophagostomum asperum originating from goats in Hunan Province, China.

The present study examined sequence variability in two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) among Oesophagostomum asperum isolates from goats in Hunan Province, China. A portion of the cox1 (pcox1), nad1 (pnad1) genes and the ITS (ITS1+5.8S rDNA+ITS2) rDNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) separately from adult O. asperum individuals and th...

Reduction of benzimidazole resistance in established Haemonchus contortus populations in goats using a single infection with a benzimidazole-susceptible isolate.

An in vivo study in goats evaluated the effect of superimposing a single artificial infection with a benzimidazole (BZ)-susceptible Haemonchus contortus isolate upon established H. contortus populations of known BZ resistance by measuring the phenotypic BZ resistance of eggs collected from faeces before and after re-infection. Two H. contortus isolates, one benzimidazole resistant (BZR) and the other susceptible (BZS), were used to infect worm-free goats. Eight goats were initially infected with 2000 third-...

The life cycle of Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) involving species of bivalve and fish hosts in the intertidal zone of central Chile.

We describe the life cycle of the bucephalid Prosorhynchoides carvajali from the intertidal rocky zone of central Chile. To elucidate the life cycle of this digenean, two mytilid bivalves, Semimytilus algosus and Perumytilus purpuratus, and ten intertidal fish species belonging to the families Blenniidae, Tripterygiidae, Labrisomidae, Kyphosidae and Gobiesocidae were analysed for natural infections. In addition, experimental infections of fish were undertaken and molecular analyses were performed of several...

Evaluation of purified 27.5 kDa protoscolex antigen-based ELISA for the detection of circulating antigens and antibodies in sheep and human hydatidosis.

Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, and the diagnosis of hydatidosis to date remains unresolved despite the development of many serological techniques. The present study aimed to develop an antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using IgG anti-27.5 kDa protoscolex antigen (27.5 PA) for measuring circulating protoscolex antigen (CPA), for comparison with an antibody detection assay, in sera of naturally infected sheep and humans in highly...

Anthelmintic resistance of intestinal nematodes to ivermectin and pyrantel in Estonian horses.

There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged

Helminth parasites in the endangered Ethiopian wolf, Canis simensis.

Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, are an endangered carnivore endemic to the Ethiopian highlands. Although previous studies have focused on aspects of Ethiopian wolf biology, including diet, territoriality, reproduction and infectious diseases such as rabies, little is known of their helminth parasites. In the current study, faecal samples were collected from 94 wild Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains of southern Ethiopia, between August 2008 and February 2010, and were screened for the presence of helm...

Induction of ulcerative colitis in mice influences the course of infection with the nematode Trichuris muris.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of infection with the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris on the course of chemically induced acute ulcerative colitis in CBA/J mice, a strain proven to be highly resistant to infection with T. muris. Each mouse was infected with 50 embryonated eggs of T. muris by oral gavage. Acute colitis was triggered by administering 4% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for nine consecutive days at different times after infection. Concurrent infection and DS...

The helminth community of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus from the Erro River valley, Navarre, Spain.

The helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus, in the Erro River valley (Navarre, Spain) was investigated from a total of 150 mice between February 2001 and July 2002. An overall prevalence of 90.7% was recorded and up to 14 helminth species identified. The most prevalent species was the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus (78.0%), whereas Syphacia stroma was the species with the highest median abundance (19.8). The detection of Calodium hepaticum, Rodentolepis straminea and the larvae of Hydatig...

Differences in the compatibility of infection between the liver flukes Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica in a Colombian population of the snail Galba sp.

Experimental infections of Galba sp. (origin, Colombia) with allopatric isolates of Fasciola hepatica from France or Fascioloides magna from the Czech Republic were carried out during five successive snail generations to determine if this lymnaeid might sustain complete larval development of either parasite. In snails exposed to F. hepatica, 7 of 400 snails harboured several rediae and only two snails contained a small number of free cercariae on day 50 post-exposure. In contrast, the intensity of F. magna ...


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