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01:06 EST 4th December 2016 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Tobacco Atlas estimates almost million annual deaths" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 5,000+

Wide variation in estimates of global prevalence and burden and death estimates from chronic HBV, HCV and coinfection with HIV in literature.

To evaluate the extent of heterogeneity in global estimates of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection cited in the published literature. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature to identify articles from 2010 to 2014 that had cited global estimates for at least one of ten indicators [prevalence and numbers infected with HBV, r HCV or HIV-HBV or HIV-HCV co-infection and mortality (number of deaths annually) for HBV and...

The changing face of cardiovascular disease 2000-2012: An analysis of the world health organisation global health estimates data.

The pattern and global burden of disease has evolved considerably over the last two decades, from primarily communicable, maternal, and perinatal causes to non-communicable disease (NCD). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become the single most important and largest cause of NCD deaths worldwide at over 50%. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that 17.6 million people died of CVD worldwide in 2012. Proportionally, this accounts for an estimated 31.43% of global mortality, with ischaemic heart disea...

Tuberculosis and Tobacco Smoking.

Worldwide there are annually about 9.6 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths due to tuberculosis (TB). Smoking is an independent risk factor causing approximately a twofold increase not only in active Tb disease but also in latent TB infection and mortality. In a mathematical model it is estimated that smoking would produce until 2050 an excess of 18 million tuberculosis cases from TB which would challenge the TB elimination goal of the WHO. Smoking cessation methods during and after TB treatment, which ...

Smokers' Perceptions of the Relative Effectiveness of Five Tobacco Retail Reduction Policies.

Reducing the widespread retail availability of tobacco could help realize tobacco endgame strategies. We assessed New Zealand smokers' perceptions of five potential policies designed to reduce the retail supply of tobacco, relative to a "benchmark" policy of annual tobacco tax increases.

Accurate diagnosis of latent tuberculosis in children, people who are immunocompromised or at risk from immunosuppression and recent arrivals from countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis: systematic review and economic evaluation.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) [(Zopf 1883) Lehmann and Neumann 1896], is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Nearly one-third of the world's population is infected with MTB; TB has an annual incidence of 9 million new cases and each year causes 2 million deaths worldwide.

Notes from the Field: Assessment of Health Facilities for Control of Canine Rabies - Gondar City, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2015.

Rabies is an encephalitic disease that is nearly always fatal after onset of illness. Worldwide, rabies kills an estimated 59,000 humans each year (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25,000-159,000); the majority of the deaths are caused by the rabies virus variant that circulates in dogs (1,2). Canine rabies is endemic in Ethiopia, with an estimated 2,771 human deaths annually (CI = 1,116-12,660) (1-3). Annual rabies-associated livestock losses are estimated at >$50 million (USD), making rabies important t...

Estimating the opportunity costs of environmental conservation in the Feijão River watershed (São Carlos-SP, Brazil).

The objective of this study was to infer the opportunity cost of land use of the Feijão River watershed (São Carlos-SP, Brazil), in order to estimate the financial resources necessary to compensate landowners willing to convert their production areas into areas of environmental preservation. Net values were estimated by calculating the Annual Value and the Net Present Value of each activity. The area used for agricultural production was estimated using the Land Cover Map of the watershed. The study involv...

Prevalence of Tobacco Use among School Teachers and Effect of Training on Tobacco Use in Western Turkey.

Tobacco consumption is still a prevalent issue. Given that teachers are respected in society, they have a great responsibility for tobacco control. This study examines, using the Transtheoretical Model (TTM), the prevalence of tobacco use among teachers and their different stages of tobacco use. It also evaluates teachers' views on smoking and the effectiveness of training on tobacco use.

The social cost of drugs in France in 2010.

The social cost of drugs is the monetary cost of both the consequences of their trade and their consumption. In this paper, drugs considered are tobacco and alcohol, which are legal, plus those that are illegal. The social cost is the sum of the external cost: value of loss in quality of life, value of years of life lost and value of loss in productivity, plus public expenditure. Public expenditure consists of public spending on medical care, prevention, and law enforcement, minus savings from unpaid pensio...

Correlates of the Use of Different Tobacco Cessation Methods by Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users According to Their Socio-Demographic Characteristics: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-10.

Tobacco control has two aspects. One involves preventing non-tobacco users from using tobacco and the second involves tobacco cessation (quitting) by existing tobacco users. There are various methods of tobacco cessation. Pharmacotherapy [e.g., nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and medications such as bupropion] and behavioral counselling are some of the internationally approved methods of tobacco cessation.

Risk Profiles of Youth Single, Dual, and Poly Tobacco Users.

Given widespread availability and uptake of myriad tobacco products among youth, a comprehensive tobacco control agenda necessitates an in-depth exploration of the phenomenon of concurrent tobacco use.

Smoking-attributable mortality in Tucumán, Argentina 2001-2010.

Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the world. In Argentina, in 2000, 16% of deaths were attributable to tobacco in over 35 years. In Tucuman it exis data on prevalence of, snuff consumption but not on mortality related to smoking. Our objective was to estimate the number of deaths attributable to tobacco smoking, the percentage attributable fraction, the rate of age-adjusted mortality and disability-adjusted life years. A cross-sectional descriptive study of mortality associated with smoki...

Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become a major cause of cirrhosis and liver-related deaths worldwide. NASH is strongly associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, conditions that cause lipid accumulation in hepatocytes (hepatic steatosis). It is not well understood why some, but not other, individuals with hepatic steatosis develop NASH. The factors that determine whether or not NASH progresses to cirrhosis are also unclear. This review summarizes key components of NASH pathogenesis and disc...

Diabetes 2030: Insights from Yesterday, Today, and Future Trends.

To forecast future trends in diabetes prevalence, morbidity, and costs in the United States, the Institute for Alternative Futures has updated its diabetes forecasting model and extended its projections to 2030 for the nation, all states, and several metropolitan areas. This paper describes the methodology and data sources for these diabetes forecasts and discusses key implications. In short, diabetes will remain a major health crisis in America, in spite of medical advances and prevention efforts. The prev...

Electronic Cigarette Use Among Working Adults - United States, 2014.

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver a heated aerosol, which typically contains nicotine, flavorings, and other additives, to the user. The e-cigarette marketplace is rapidly evolving, but the long-term health effects of these products are not known. Carcinogens and toxins such as diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and other harmful chemicals have been documented in the aerosol from some e-cigarettes (1-3). On May 5, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) finalized a rule...

Workers' Memorial Day - April 28, 2016.

Workers' Memorial Day, observed annually on April 28, recognizes workers who suffered or died because of exposures to hazards at work. In 2014, 4,679 U.S. workers died from work-related injuries. Although deaths from work-related injuries are captured by surveillance systems, most deaths from work-related illness are not. In 2007, an estimated 53,445 deaths from work-related illness occurred. In 2014, employers reported approximately 3 million nonfatal injuries and illnesses to private industry workers and ...

Effectiveness of oral health education versus nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco cessation- a parallel randomized clinical trial.

India has millions of tobacco users. It is the leading cause of deaths due to oral cancer and hence needs effective strategies to curb it. Hence the aim of present study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of Oral Health Education (OHE) and Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) in tobacco cessation.

How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase.

Factors associated with the need for ventilation at birth of neonates weighing ≥2,500 g.

Approximately 20-40% of annual global neonatal deaths occur among infants with birthweights ≥2,500 g, and most of these deaths are associated with intrapartum asphyxia in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to evaluate the peripartum variables associated with the need for resuscitation at birth of neonates weighing ≥2,500 g.

2016 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures.

This report describes the public health impact of Alzheimer's disease, including incidence and prevalence, mortality rates, costs of care, and the overall impact on caregivers and society. It also examines in detail the financial impact of Alzheimer's on families, including annual costs to families and the difficult decisions families must often make to pay those costs. An estimated 5.4 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease. By mid-century, the number of people living with Alzheimer's disease in the Un...

What Is Required to End the AIDS Epidemic as a Public Health Threat by 2030? The Cost and Impact of the Fast-Track Approach.

In 2011 a new Investment Framework was proposed that described how the scale-up of key HIV interventions could dramatically reduce new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths in low and middle income countries by 2015. This framework included ambitious coverage goals for prevention and treatment services for 2015, resulting in a reduction of new HIV infections by more than half, in line with the goals of the declaration of the UN High Level Meeting in June 2011. However, the approach suggested a leveling in ...

The Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on US Smokeless Tobacco Use: A Structured Review.

Tobacco use has shifted increasingly from cigarettes to other products. While the focus has been mostly on cigarette-oriented policies, it is important to gauge the effects of policies targeting other products. We review and critique the literature on how policies affect smokeless tobacco (ST).

The Fraction of Cancer Attributable to Ways of Life, Infections, Occupation, and Environmental Agents in Brazil in 2020.

Many human cancers develop as a result of exposure to risk factors related to the environment and ways of life. The aim of this study was to estimate attributable fractions of 25 types of cancers resulting from exposure to modifiable risk factors in Brazil. The prevalence of exposure to selected risk factors among adults was obtained from population-based surveys conducted from 2000 to 2008. Risk estimates were based on data drawn from meta-analyses or large, high quality studies. Population-attributable fr...

Assessing the Cost of Global Biodiversity and Conservation Knowledge.

Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards, governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms. Considerable resources are dedicated to developing and maintaining knowledge products for biodiversity conservation, and they are widely used to inform policy and advise decision makers and practitioners. However, the financial cost of delivering this information is largely undocumented. We evaluated the costs and funding sources for develop...

Invited Commentary: Smokeless Tobacco-An Important Contributor to Cancer, but More Work Is Needed.

In this issue of the Journal, Wyss et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;000(00):000-000) describe the association between use of smokeless tobacco and head and neck cancer in 11 US case-control studies. Despite use by an estimated 300 million people worldwide and prior evidence for a causal association with cancer, these products remain understudied. Data are particularly needed for persons who do not use cigarettes or other smoking tobacco products. With 6,772 cancer cases and 8,375 controls, the current study is ...

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