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Showing "Tobacco Atlas estimates almost million annual deaths" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 5,100+

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Public opinions on tax and retail-based tobacco control strategies.

While tobacco taxes and smoke-free air regulations have significantly decreased tobacco use, tobacco-related illness accounts for hundreds of thousands of annual deaths. Experts are considering additional strategies to further reduce tobacco consumption.

Impact of anti-tobacco warning labels on behaviour of tobacco users in one of the cities of Gujarat, India.

Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable deaths, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. Tobacco control must be given the high priority by scaling up tobacco control measures. In India under Control of Tobacco Product Act, it is mandatory to keep the warning labels over all kind of tobacco products in order to minimise the use of tobacco.

The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 usin...

Social determinants of tobacco consumption among Nepalese men: findings from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

In the 20th century, 100 million people across the globe lost their lives due to consumption of tobacco. Every year 15,000 deaths in Nepal are attributable to tobacco smoking and using other products of tobacco. This study aimed to establish the proportion and the social determinants of tobacco use among Nepalese men based on the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), 2011.

A cluster randomized controlled trial of a brief tobacco cessation intervention for low-income communities in India: study protocol.

India has 275 million adult tobacco users and tobacco use is estimated to contribute to more than a million deaths in the country each year. There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate affordable, practicable and scalable interventions to promote cessation of tobacco use. Because tobacco use is so harmful, an increase of as little as 1 percentage point in long-term quit success rates can have an important public health impact. This protocol paper describes the rationale and methods of a large randomized...

Tobacco use, its influences, triggers, and associated oral lesions among the patients attending a dental institution in rural Maharashtra, India.

World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that tobacco deaths in India may exceed 1.5 million annually by 2020.

Estimates of possible severe bacterial infection in neonates in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America for 2012: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Bacterial infections are a leading cause of the 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths. Treatment is usually based on clinical diagnosis of possible severe bacterial infection (pSBI). To guide programme planning, we have undertaken the first estimates of neonatal pSBI, by sex and by region, for sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America.

Diabetes in the Western Pacific Region-Past, Present and Future.

In the 2013 issue of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas, the prevalence of diabetes in the Western Pacific (WP) Region was reported to be 8.6% in 2013, or 138 million adults, and estimated to rise to 11.1%, or 201 million adults, in 2035. The prevalence estimates of impaired glucose tolerance in 2013 and 2035 were 6.8% and 9.0%, respectively. Over 50% of people with diabetes were undiagnosed. In 2013, 187 million deaths were attributable to diabetes, 44% of which occurred in the unde...

Atrial fibrillation as a cause of death increased steeply in England between 1995 and 2010.

To report trends in mortality rates for atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF), using all the certified causes of death mentioned on death certificates (conventionally known as 'mentions') as well as the underlying cause of death, in the national population of England (1995-2010) and in a regional population with longer coverage of all-mentions mortality (1979-2010).METHODS AND RESULTS: Analysis of death registration data in England and in the Oxford record linkage study. In England between 1995 and 2010, AF was ...

Tobacco use among youths - Argentina, 2007 and 2012.

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of deaths worldwide. The MPOWER package, the six recommended policies of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reverse the tobacco epidemic, strongly recommends monitoring tobacco use trends. Because evidence indicates that smoking addiction often starts before the age of 18 years, there is a need to monitor tobacco use among youths. During 2011, a National Tobacco Control Law was enacted in Argentina that included implementation of 100% smoke-free environments,...

Disaster-related fatalities among US citizens traveling abroad.

Objective: To describe the locations and risk of death associated with natural disaster fatalities for US citizens traveling abroad. Design, setting, and participants: A retrospective database review of US citizen disaster deaths occurring worldwide. Interventions: None. Main outcome measures: Information on fatalities due to disasters was abstracted from the US Department of State Web site reporting deaths of US citizens abroad by non-natural causes from October 2002 through June 2012. The main outcome mea...

Need to Focus Beyond the Medical Causes: a Systematic Review of the Social Factors Affecting Neonatal Deaths.

Reducing the global total of 3.3 million neonatal deaths is crucial to meeting the fourth Millennium Development Goal. Until recently, attention has been on the medical causes of the neonatal deaths, while the social factors contextualising these deaths have largely remained unaddressed. The current review aimed to quantify the role of these factors in neonatal deaths.

Rabies, tetanus, leprosy, and malaria.

The developing world is still endemic to rabies, tetanus, leprosy, and malaria. Globally more than 55000 people die of rabies each year, about 95% in Asia and Africa. Annually, more than 10 million people, mostly in Asia, receive postexposure vaccination against the disease. World Health Organization estimated tetanus-related deaths at 163000 in 2004 worldwide. Globally, the annual detection of new cases of leprosy continues to decline and the global case detection declined by 3.54% during 2008 compared to ...

A novel approach for monitoring tobacco use in local communities by wastewater analysis.

We propose a novel approach for measuring tobacco use in a community through the chemical analysis of nicotine metabolites in urban wastewater. It offers frequent monitoring and 'real-time', 'evidence-based' estimates of tobacco consumption which may complement epidemiological surveillance systems normally repeated only every few years.

Determination of tropical deforestation rates and related carbon losses from 1990 to 2010.

We estimate changes in forest cover (deforestation and forest regrowth) in the tropics for the two last decades (1990-2000 and 2000-2010) based on a sample of 4,000 units of 10km×10km size. Forest cover is interpreted from satellite imagery at 30m×30m resolution. Forest cover changes are then combined with pan-tropical biomass maps to estimate carbon losses. We show that there was a gross loss of tropical forests of 8.0 million ha y(-1) in the 1990s and 7.6 million ha y(-1) in the 2000s (0.49% annual rate...

A comparison of alternative methods for measuring cigarette prices.

Government agencies, public health organisations and tobacco control researchers rely on accurate estimates of cigarette prices for a variety of purposes. Since the 1950s, the Tax Burden on Tobacco (TBOT) has served as the most widely used source of this price data despite its limitations.

The Case in Favor of E-Cigarettes for Tobacco Harm Reduction.

A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated...

Vaccine preventable viral diseases in developing countries.

There are several viral infectious diseases with a high impact on developing countries which can be prevented by immunization with existing vaccines. The most important are poliomyelitis, measles, hepatitis B and yellow fever. Vaccines against poliomyelitis and measles used within the framework of the WHO/Expanded Programme on Immunization prevent about 1.4 million deaths from measles and 360,000 cases of paralytic polio per year in developing countries, but about 1.5 million measles' deaths and 200,000 cas...

Health policies for tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean: an integrative review.

The habit of smoking is an increasing concern for governments, health authorities and society as a whole, as it is a legal drug, which is addictive and leads to serious damage to health. Cigarette smoking causes about 5.4 million deaths/year worldwide and is the second major risk factor for deaths. An attempt is made to identify how policies can contribute to the eradication of smoking in Latin America and the Caribbean. An integrative review was conducted at BIREME using LILACS, and 16 articles were select...


Drugs and other chemicals involved in fatal poisoning in England and Wales during 2000-2011.

Context. Fatal poisoning data can reveal trends in the poisons encountered, which can help guide prescribing practices and product safety and other legislation, and more recently has helped to monitor the use of emerging drugs of abuse ('legal highs'). Methods. We searched Mortality Statistics - Injury and poisoning, Series DH4 (2000-2005), Mortality Statistics - Deaths registered in England and Wales, Series DR (2006-2011), and the Office for National Statistics drug poisoning database for information on f...

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and Rhesus disease of the newborn: incidence and impairment estimates for 2010 at regional and global levels.

Background:Rhesus (Rh) disease and extreme hyperbilirubinemia (EHB) result in neonatal mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment, yet there are no estimates of their burden.Methods:Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were undertaken of national prevalence, mortality, and kernicterus due to Rh disease and EHB. We applied a compartmental model to estimate neonatal survivors and impairment cases for 2010.Results:Twenty-four million (18% of 134 million live births ≥32 wk gestational age from 18...

Health impact assessment of exposure to fine particulate matter based on satellite and meteorological information.

Air pollution in China, especially in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, has drastically increased in recent years. We modelled annual mean ground-level PM2.5 concentrations based on worldwide satellite information and meteorological data from 40 cities outside the PRD. The model of PM2.5 concentration (R = 0.845) was best explained by aerosol optical thickness (43.8%). We validated the spatial-temporal dimensions of the model and estimated that the annual mean PM2.5 concentration in PRD ranged between 22 ...

How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user's perspective.

To explore the tobacco-dependent subject's perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation.

Prevalence, Harm Perceptions, and Reasons for Using Noncombustible Tobacco Products Among Current and Former Smokers.

Objectives. We provided estimates of noncombustible tobacco product (electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]; snus; chewing tobacco, dip, or snuff; and dissolvables) use among current and former smokers and examined harm perceptions of noncombustible tobacco products and reasons for their use. Methods. We assessed awareness of, prevalence of, purchase of, harm perceptions of, and reasons for using noncombustible tobacco products among 1487 current and former smokers from 8 US designated market areas. We...

Evaluation of groundwater recharge estimates in a partially metamorphosed sedimentary basin in a tropical environment: application of natural tracers.

This study tests the representativeness of groundwater recharge estimates through the chloride mass balance (CMB) method in a tropical environment. The representativeness of recharge estimates using this methodology is tested using evaporation estimates from isotope data, the general spatial distribution of the potential field, and the topographical variations in the area. This study suggests that annual groundwater recharge rates in the area ranges between 0.9% and 21% of annual precipitation. These estima...

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