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Showing "Tobacco Atlas estimates almost million annual deaths" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 6,400+

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Smokeless tobacco use: A meta-analysis of risk and attributable mortality estimates for India.

Background: Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is widely prevalent in India and Indian subcontinent. Cohort and case-control studies in India and elsewhere report excess mortality due to its use. Objective: The aim was to estimate the SLT use-attributable deaths in males and females, aged 35 years and older, in India. Materials And Methods: Prevalence of SLT use in persons aged 35 years and older was obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in India and population size and deaths in the relevant age-sex gr...

Estimates of possible severe bacterial infection in neonates in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America for 2012: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Bacterial infections are a leading cause of the 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths. Treatment is usually based on clinical diagnosis of possible severe bacterial infection (pSBI). To guide programme planning, we have undertaken the first estimates of neonatal pSBI, by sex and by region, for sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America.

The Impact of inter-survey differences in the definition of current smokeless tobacco use on comparability of US national and state-specific prevalence estimates, 2009-2011.

We assessed how varying definitions of adult smokeless tobacco (SLT) use affected overall prevalence estimates.

Tobacco use among youths - Argentina, 2007 and 2012.

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of deaths worldwide. The MPOWER package, the six recommended policies of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reverse the tobacco epidemic, strongly recommends monitoring tobacco use trends. Because evidence indicates that smoking addiction often starts before the age of 18 years, there is a need to monitor tobacco use among youths. During 2011, a National Tobacco Control Law was enacted in Argentina that included implementation of 100% smoke-free environments,...

Tobacco-, Alcohol-, and Drug-Attributable Deaths and Their Contribution to Mortality Disparities in a Cohort of Homeless Adults in Boston.

Objectives. We quantified tobacco-, alcohol-, and drug-attributable deaths and their contribution to mortality disparities among homeless adults. Methods. We ascertained causes of death among 28 033 adults seen at the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program in 2003 to 2008. We calculated population-attributable fractions to estimate the proportion of deaths attributable to tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. We compared attributable mortality rates with those for Massachusetts adults using rate ratios and ...

A novel approach for monitoring tobacco use in local communities by wastewater analysis.

We propose a novel approach for measuring tobacco use in a community through the chemical analysis of nicotine metabolites in urban wastewater. It offers frequent monitoring and 'real-time', 'evidence-based' estimates of tobacco consumption which may complement epidemiological surveillance systems normally repeated only every few years.

The Role of Cities in Reducing Smoking in China.

China is the epicenter of the global tobacco epidemic. China grows more tobacco, produces more cigarettes, makes more profits from tobacco and has more smokers than any other nation in the world. Approximately one million smokers in China die annually from diseases caused by smoking, and this estimate is expected to reach over two million by 2020. China cities have a unique opportunity and role to play in leading the tobacco control charge from the "bottom up". The Emory Global Health Institute-China Tobacc...

Exploring an effective tobacco prevention programme for Indian adolescents.

Tobacco use is among the most significant public health issues faced by the world today. It is estimated that approximately 5500 adolescents start using tobacco every day in India, adding to the four million youths aged

The Case in Favor of E-Cigarettes for Tobacco Harm Reduction.

A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated...

Determination of tropical deforestation rates and related carbon losses from 1990 to 2010.

We estimate changes in forest cover (deforestation and forest regrowth) in the tropics for the two last decades (1990-2000 and 2000-2010) based on a sample of 4,000 units of 10km×10km size. Forest cover is interpreted from satellite imagery at 30m×30m resolution. Forest cover changes are then combined with pan-tropical biomass maps to estimate carbon losses. We show that there was a gross loss of tropical forests of 8.0 million ha y(-1) in the 1990s and 7.6 million ha y(-1) in the 2000s (0.49% annual rate...

Cost-benefit analysis of the Swiss national policy on reducing micropollutants in treated wastewater.

Contamination of freshwater with micropollutants (MPs) is a growing concern worldwide. Even at very low concentrations, MPs can have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and possibly also on human health. Switzerland is one of the first countries to start implementing a national policy to reduce MPs in the effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). This paper estimates the benefits of upgrading STPs based on public's stated preferences. To assess public demand for the reduction of the environme...

Sequelae of Foodborne Illness Caused by 5 Pathogens, Australia, Circa 2010.

In Australia circa 2010, 4.1 million (90% credible interval [CrI] 2.3-6.4 million) episodes of foodborne gastroenteritis occurred, many of which might have resulted in sequelae. We estimated the number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths from Guillain-Barré syndrome, hemolytic uremic syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and reactive arthritis that were associated with contaminated food in Australia. Data from published studies, hospital records, and mortality reports were combined with multipliers to...

The Cost of Lost Productivity Due to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder-Related Premature Mortality.

Background Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) have increased mortality as compared to the general population.  ObjectivesTo estimate the productivity losses due to premature mortality of individuals with FASD in Canada in 2011. MethodsA demographic approach with a counterfactual scenario in which nobody in Canada is born with FASD was used. Population estimates were calculated using data on the labour force, unemployment rate, and average weekly wage obtained from Statistics Canada....

The global burden of liver disease: a challenge for methods and for public health.

New Global Burden of Disease estimates for liver cirrhosis, published in BMC Medicine, suggest that cirrhosis caused over a million deaths in 2010, with a further million due to liver cancer and acute hepatitis. Cause-specific mortality data were very sparse for some regions, particularly in Africa, with no relevant mortality data for 58/187 countries. Liver disease involves infectious, malignant and chronic aetiologies with overlapping symptoms. Where available mortality data come from verbal autopsies, se...

Health policies for tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean: an integrative review.

The habit of smoking is an increasing concern for governments, health authorities and society as a whole, as it is a legal drug, which is addictive and leads to serious damage to health. Cigarette smoking causes about 5.4 million deaths/year worldwide and is the second major risk factor for deaths. An attempt is made to identify how policies can contribute to the eradication of smoking in Latin America and the Caribbean. An integrative review was conducted at BIREME using LILACS, and 16 articles were select...


Unintentional Home Injuries Across the Life Span: Problems and Solutions.

Home injuries cause more than 30,000 deaths and 12 million nonfatal injuries annually in the United States. They generate an estimated $222 billion in lifetime costs annually. Despite some data limitations in documenting home as the location of an injury, much progress has been made in identifying effective prevention strategies that reduce injury or mitigate risk behaviors. The current interest in public health in the role of housing in health offers unparalleled opportunities for injury prevention profess...

Estimation of brain internal structures by deforming brain atlas using finite element method.

This paper presents a method for estimating the internal structures of a patient brain by deforming a standard brain atlas. Conventional deformation methods need several landmarks from the brain surface contour to fit the atlas to the patient brain shape. However, since the number and shapes of small sulci on the brain surface are different from each other, the determination of the accurate correspondence between small sulcus is difficult for experienced neurosurgeons. Moreover, the relationship between the...

Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales.

In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.

Tobacco Cessation Among Users of Telephone and Web-Based Interventions - Four States, 2011-2012.

Smoking caused an average of 480,000 deaths per year in the United States from 2005 to 2009, and three in 10 cancer deaths in the United States are tobacco related. Tobacco cessation is a high public health priority, and all states offer some form of tobacco cessation service. Quitlines provide telephone-based counseling services and are an effective intervention for tobacco cessation. In addition to telephone services, 96% of all U.S. quitlines offer Web-based cessation services. Evidence is limited on the...

Prevalence, Harm Perceptions, and Reasons for Using Noncombustible Tobacco Products Among Current and Former Smokers.

Objectives. We provided estimates of noncombustible tobacco product (electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]; snus; chewing tobacco, dip, or snuff; and dissolvables) use among current and former smokers and examined harm perceptions of noncombustible tobacco products and reasons for their use. Methods. We assessed awareness of, prevalence of, purchase of, harm perceptions of, and reasons for using noncombustible tobacco products among 1487 current and former smokers from 8 US designated market areas. We...

Foodborne Illness, Australia, Circa 2000 and Circa 2010.

Foodborne disease is a major public health problem worldwide. To examine changes in foodborne illness in Australia, we estimated the incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths attributed to contaminated food circa 2010 and recalculated estimates from circa 2000. Approximately 25% of gastroenteritis cases were caused by contaminated food; to account for uncertainty we used simulation techniques to estimate 90% credible intervals. We estimate that circa 2010, 4.1 million foodborne gastroenteritis cases occurred,...

Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey.

Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi) and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul) using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most w...

WHO: More Than 7 Million Air Pollution Deaths Each Year.

Coding a million deaths in India, one interview at a time.

Community-based tobacco cessation program among women in Mumbai, India.

Background: Globally tobacco epidemic kills nearly six million people annually. Consumption of tobacco products is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco is addictive; hence, tobacco users need support in quitting. Aims: Providing tobacco cessation services to women in community enabling them to quit tobacco, identifying factors associated with quitting and documenting the processes involved to establish a replicable "model tobacco cessation program." Settings and Design: This is a communi...

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