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Showing "Tobacco Atlas estimates almost million annual deaths" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 5,200+

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Impact of anti-tobacco warning labels on behaviour of tobacco users in one of the cities of Gujarat, India.

Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable deaths, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. Tobacco control must be given the high priority by scaling up tobacco control measures. In India under Control of Tobacco Product Act, it is mandatory to keep the warning labels over all kind of tobacco products in order to minimise the use of tobacco.

A cluster randomized controlled trial of a brief tobacco cessation intervention for low-income communities in India: study protocol.

India has 275 million adult tobacco users and tobacco use is estimated to contribute to more than a million deaths in the country each year. There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate affordable, practicable and scalable interventions to promote cessation of tobacco use. Because tobacco use is so harmful, an increase of as little as 1 percentage point in long-term quit success rates can have an important public health impact. This protocol paper describes the rationale and methods of a large randomized...

Tobacco use, its influences, triggers, and associated oral lesions among the patients attending a dental institution in rural Maharashtra, India.

World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that tobacco deaths in India may exceed 1.5 million annually by 2020.

The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 usin...

Estimates of possible severe bacterial infection in neonates in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America for 2012: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Bacterial infections are a leading cause of the 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths. Treatment is usually based on clinical diagnosis of possible severe bacterial infection (pSBI). To guide programme planning, we have undertaken the first estimates of neonatal pSBI, by sex and by region, for sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America.

Diabetes in the Western Pacific Region-Past, Present and Future.

In the 2013 issue of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas, the prevalence of diabetes in the Western Pacific (WP) Region was reported to be 8.6% in 2013, or 138 million adults, and estimated to rise to 11.1%, or 201 million adults, in 2035. The prevalence estimates of impaired glucose tolerance in 2013 and 2035 were 6.8% and 9.0%, respectively. Over 50% of people with diabetes were undiagnosed. In 2013, 187 million deaths were attributable to diabetes, 44% of which occurred in the unde...

Tobacco use among youths - Argentina, 2007 and 2012.

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of deaths worldwide. The MPOWER package, the six recommended policies of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reverse the tobacco epidemic, strongly recommends monitoring tobacco use trends. Because evidence indicates that smoking addiction often starts before the age of 18 years, there is a need to monitor tobacco use among youths. During 2011, a National Tobacco Control Law was enacted in Argentina that included implementation of 100% smoke-free environments,...

A novel approach for monitoring tobacco use in local communities by wastewater analysis.

We propose a novel approach for measuring tobacco use in a community through the chemical analysis of nicotine metabolites in urban wastewater. It offers frequent monitoring and 'real-time', 'evidence-based' estimates of tobacco consumption which may complement epidemiological surveillance systems normally repeated only every few years.

The Role of Cities in Reducing Smoking in China.

China is the epicenter of the global tobacco epidemic. China grows more tobacco, produces more cigarettes, makes more profits from tobacco and has more smokers than any other nation in the world. Approximately one million smokers in China die annually from diseases caused by smoking, and this estimate is expected to reach over two million by 2020. China cities have a unique opportunity and role to play in leading the tobacco control charge from the "bottom up". The Emory Global Health Institute-China Tobacc...

Determination of tropical deforestation rates and related carbon losses from 1990 to 2010.

We estimate changes in forest cover (deforestation and forest regrowth) in the tropics for the two last decades (1990-2000 and 2000-2010) based on a sample of 4,000 units of 10km×10km size. Forest cover is interpreted from satellite imagery at 30m×30m resolution. Forest cover changes are then combined with pan-tropical biomass maps to estimate carbon losses. We show that there was a gross loss of tropical forests of 8.0 million ha y(-1) in the 1990s and 7.6 million ha y(-1) in the 2000s (0.49% annual rate...

Cost-benefit analysis of the Swiss national policy on reducing micropollutants in treated wastewater.

Contamination of freshwater with micropollutants (MPs) is a growing concern worldwide. Even at very low concentrations, MPs can have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and possibly also on human health. Switzerland is one of the first countries to start implementing a national policy to reduce MPs in the effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). This paper estimates the benefits of upgrading STPs based on public's stated preferences. To assess public demand for the reduction of the environme...

The Case in Favor of E-Cigarettes for Tobacco Harm Reduction.

A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated...

The global burden of liver disease: a challenge for methods and for public health.

New Global Burden of Disease estimates for liver cirrhosis, published in BMC Medicine, suggest that cirrhosis caused over a million deaths in 2010, with a further million due to liver cancer and acute hepatitis. Cause-specific mortality data were very sparse for some regions, particularly in Africa, with no relevant mortality data for 58/187 countries. Liver disease involves infectious, malignant and chronic aetiologies with overlapping symptoms. Where available mortality data come from verbal autopsies, se...

Health policies for tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean: an integrative review.

The habit of smoking is an increasing concern for governments, health authorities and society as a whole, as it is a legal drug, which is addictive and leads to serious damage to health. Cigarette smoking causes about 5.4 million deaths/year worldwide and is the second major risk factor for deaths. An attempt is made to identify how policies can contribute to the eradication of smoking in Latin America and the Caribbean. An integrative review was conducted at BIREME using LILACS, and 16 articles were select...

Vaccine preventable viral diseases in developing countries.

There are several viral infectious diseases with a high impact on developing countries which can be prevented by immunization with existing vaccines. The most important are poliomyelitis, measles, hepatitis B and yellow fever. Vaccines against poliomyelitis and measles used within the framework of the WHO/Expanded Programme on Immunization prevent about 1.4 million deaths from measles and 360,000 cases of paralytic polio per year in developing countries, but about 1.5 million measles' deaths and 200,000 cas...


How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user's perspective.

To explore the tobacco-dependent subject's perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation.

Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales.

In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.

Drugs and other chemicals involved in fatal poisoning in England and Wales during 2000-2011.

Context. Fatal poisoning data can reveal trends in the poisons encountered, which can help guide prescribing practices and product safety and other legislation, and more recently has helped to monitor the use of emerging drugs of abuse ('legal highs'). Methods. We searched Mortality Statistics - Injury and poisoning, Series DH4 (2000-2005), Mortality Statistics - Deaths registered in England and Wales, Series DR (2006-2011), and the Office for National Statistics drug poisoning database for information on f...

Prevalence, Harm Perceptions, and Reasons for Using Noncombustible Tobacco Products Among Current and Former Smokers.

Objectives. We provided estimates of noncombustible tobacco product (electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]; snus; chewing tobacco, dip, or snuff; and dissolvables) use among current and former smokers and examined harm perceptions of noncombustible tobacco products and reasons for their use. Methods. We assessed awareness of, prevalence of, purchase of, harm perceptions of, and reasons for using noncombustible tobacco products among 1487 current and former smokers from 8 US designated market areas. We...

Health impact assessment of exposure to fine particulate matter based on satellite and meteorological information.

Air pollution in China, especially in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, has drastically increased in recent years. We modelled annual mean ground-level PM2.5 concentrations based on worldwide satellite information and meteorological data from 40 cities outside the PRD. The model of PM2.5 concentration (R = 0.845) was best explained by aerosol optical thickness (43.8%). We validated the spatial-temporal dimensions of the model and estimated that the annual mean PM2.5 concentration in PRD ranged between 22 ...

Evaluation of groundwater recharge estimates in a partially metamorphosed sedimentary basin in a tropical environment: application of natural tracers.

This study tests the representativeness of groundwater recharge estimates through the chloride mass balance (CMB) method in a tropical environment. The representativeness of recharge estimates using this methodology is tested using evaporation estimates from isotope data, the general spatial distribution of the potential field, and the topographical variations in the area. This study suggests that annual groundwater recharge rates in the area ranges between 0.9% and 21% of annual precipitation. These estima...

The Emergent Concern of Hepatitis B globally with special attention to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Chronic viral hepatitis is highly prevalent and creates a substantial burden to healthcare systems globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 350 and 250 million people worldwide are chronic carrier of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection respectively. These two diseases are the cause of significant global mortality and morbidity with approximately 1 million deaths each year attributable to them and their sequelae, liver disease and primary liver cancer. Altho...

CRUK to Fund Mid-Career Scientists.

Cancer Research UK's expanded 5-year funding strategy includes an annual award for mid-career scientists providing £1.5 million ($2.3 million) over 6 years to cover the costs of running a lab.

Pedestrian Traffic Deaths Among Residents, Visitors, and Homeless Persons - Clark County, Nevada, 2008-2011.

Motor vehicle collisions and crashes are a leading cause of death among Nevada residents aged 5-34 years, representing 14% of all injury deaths in that age group in 2010. During 2008-2011, a total of 173 pedestrian deaths from motor vehicle collisions occurred in Nevada, accounting for 16% of motor vehicle deaths in the state (2). Approximately 75% (2 million persons) of Nevada residents live in Clark County, which includes the city of Las Vegas. To analyze pedestrian traffic deaths in Clark County among re...

Challenges of global vaccination policy.

Globally 34 million children are born that do not receive the basic vaccines. Three million of them die of diseases, for which an effective vaccine exists. An effective vaccination program demands clear-cut objectives, righteous decision-making and an effective financing system. A vaccination program should strive for wide coverage globally, be credible in the citizens' view and flexible in situations of crisis. If the renewal plans for vaccination programs are actualized, 24 to 26 million unnecessary death...

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