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Showing "Tobacco Atlas estimates almost million annual deaths" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 5,000+

The boundaries of genocide: Quantifying the uncertainty of the death toll during the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia (1975-79).

The range of estimates of excess deaths under Pol Pot's rule of Cambodia (1975-79) is too wide to be useful: they range from under 1 to over 3 million, with the more plausible estimates still varying from 1 to 2 million. By stochastically reconstructing population dynamics in Cambodia from extant historical and demographic data, we produced interpretable distributions of the death toll and other demographic indicators. The resulting 95 per cent simulation interval (1.2-2.8 million excess deaths) demonstra...

Selection of optimal tobacco cessation medication treatment in patients with cancer.

Tobacco use is responsible for almost half a million deaths per year in the United States, and it accounts for one-third of all cancer deaths. Limited data concerning tobacco treatment among patients with cancer are available. In addition, these patients often have complicated medical histories and are taking multiple medications. No clear, published procedures exist to help the healthcare provider select the proper medication for tobacco cessation in that context.

Socio-economic disparities in tobacco consumption in rural India: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system.

India houses over 275 million tobacco users, with 164 million users of only smokeless tobacco, 69 million exclusive smokers, and 42 million users of both smoking and smokeless tobacco. This study aims to examine the socio-economic factors associated with types of tobacco use in a selected rural Indian population.

Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates.

The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneum...

NIH Funding for Tobacco vs Harm from Tobacco.

Previously, the author documented that, even though tobacco-related diseases accounted for 20% of US deaths, in 1995 NIH expended only 1.1% of its budget on tobacco research. The current analysis is a replication test of this result and adds other outcomes and comparison behaviors.

Estimates of Foodborne Illness-Related Hospitalizations and Deaths in Canada for 30 Specified Pathogens and Unspecified Agents.

Foodborne illness estimates help to set food safety priorities and create public health policies. The Public Health Agency of Canada estimates that 4 million episodes of foodborne illness occur each year in Canada due to 30 known pathogens and unspecified agents. The main objective of this study was to estimate the number of domestically acquired foodborne illness-related hospitalizations and deaths. Using the estimates of foodborne illness for Canada along with data from the Canadian Hospitalization Morbid...

Identification of Barriers to Pediatric Care in Limited-Resource Settings: A Simulation Study.

Eighty percent of the 10 million annual deaths in children aged

State Tobacco Control Program Spending - United States, 2011.

Evidence-based, statewide tobacco control programs that are comprehensive, sustained, and accountable reduce smoking rates and tobacco-related diseases and deaths. States that made larger investments in tobacco prevention and control have seen larger declines in cigarettes sales than the United States as a whole, and the prevalence of smoking has declined faster as spending for tobacco control programs has increased. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs (Best Practices) outlines t...

Deaths Associated with Respiratory Syncytial and Influenza Viruses among Persons ≥5 Years of Age in HIV-Prevalent Area, South Africa, 1998-2009(1).

We estimated deaths attributable to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among persons >5 years of age in South Africa during 1998-2009 by applying regression models to monthly deaths and laboratory surveillance data. Rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years. The mean annual number of seasonal influenza-associated deaths was 9,093 (rate 21.6). Persons >65 years of age and HIV-positive persons accounted for 50% (n = 4,552) and 28% (n = 2,564) of overall seasonal influenza-associated deaths, r...

Trajectories of smoking behavior as a function of mood and satisfaction with life: What matters most?

Worldwide, tobacco use causes more than 5 million deaths per year. The present study investigated possible preventative factors of nicotine dependence, such as mood and Satisfaction With Life (SWL).

Low-rank Atlas Image Analyses in the Presence of Pathologies.

We present a common framework, for registering images to an atlas and for forming an unbiased atlas, that tolerates the presence of pathologies such as tumors and traumatic brain injury lesions. This common framework is particularly useful when a sufficient number of protocol-matched scans from healthy subjects cannot be easily acquired for atlas formation and when the pathologies in a patient cause large appearance changes. Our framework combines a low-rank-plus-sparse image decomposition technique with an...

The burden of smoking-related diseases in Brazil: mortality, morbidity and costs.

Advances in tobacco control in Brazil can be reflected in the decrease in prevalence over the past two decades. Death statistics and the occurrence of events and direct costs attributable to tobacco-related diseases have not been frequently estimated in the country. The goal of this article is to estimate the burden of smoking in 2011 regarding mortality, morbidity and medical care costs of the main tobacco-related diseases. A probabilistic microsimulation health economic model was built. The model incorpor...

HIV/AIDS in South Africa: how many people died from the disease between 1997 and 2010?

Empirical estimates of the number of HIV/AIDS deaths are important for planning, budgeting, and calibrating models. However, there is an extensive misattribution of HIV/AIDS as an underlying cause-of-death. This study estimates the true numbers of AIDS deaths from South African vital statistics between 1997 and 2010.

Health, Health Inequality, and Cost Impacts of Annual Increases in Tobacco Tax: Multistate Life Table Modeling in New Zealand.

Countries are increasingly considering how to reduce or even end tobacco consumption, and raising tobacco taxes is a potential strategy to achieve these goals. We estimated the impacts on health, health inequalities, and health system costs of ongoing tobacco tax increases (10% annually from 2011 to 2031, compared to no tax increases from 2011 ["business as usual," BAU]), in a country (New Zealand) with large ethnic inequalities in smoking-related and noncommunicable disease (NCD) burden.

The Potential Adverse Health Consequences of Exposure to Electronic Cigarettes and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

Tobacco continues to be the leading cause of preventable death and illness in the United States and the world (World Health Organization, 2011). In addition, tobacco is responsible for one in three cancer deaths in the United States (American Cancer Society, 2015). Prevention of tobacco-related disease, disability, and death could be achieved by promoting tobacco control (i.e., preventing uptake, helping smokers quit, and protecting against exposure to secondhand smoke). 

Gender-Specific Association between Tobacco Smoking and Central Obesity among 0.5 Million Chinese People: The China Kadoorie Biobank Study.

Lifestyle factors are well-known important modifiable risk factors for obesity; the association between tobacco smoking and central obesity, however, is largely unknown in the Chinese population. This study examined the relationship between smoking and central obesity in 0.5 million Chinese adults, a population with a low prevalence of general obesity, but a high prevalence of central obesity.

Estimating Influenza Disease Burden from Population-Based Surveillance Data in the United States.

Annual estimates of the influenza disease burden provide information to evaluate programs and allocate resources. We used a multiplier method with routine population-based surveillance data on influenza hospitalization in the United States to correct for under-reporting and estimate the burden of influenza for seasons after the 2009 pandemic. Five sites of the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) collected data on the frequency and sensitivity of influenza testing during two seasons ...

Review: HIV-Plasmodium Co-infection: Malaria in AIDS patients.

Malaria and HIV are amongst the two main diseases worldwide and creating troubles of our time. Together, they grounds extra than four million deaths a year. Malaria causes around about for more than a million deaths each year, of which over 80-90 % come about in tropical Africa, somewhere malaria is the primary source of mortality in children below six years of age. Sideways as of adolescent, children, pregnant women are surrounded by the largest part exaggerated by the disease. In the wide geographical ext...

Multi-atlas learner fusion: An efficient segmentation approach for large-scale data.

We propose multi-atlas learner fusion (MLF), a framework for rapidly and accurately replicating the highly accurate, yet computationally expensive, multi-atlas segmentation framework based on fusing local learners. In the largest whole-brain multi-atlas study yet reported, multi-atlas segmentations are estimated for a training set of 3464 MR brain images. Using these multi-atlas estimates we (1) estimate a low-dimensional representation for selecting locally appropriate example images, and (2) build AdaBoos...

Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources.

China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense i...

The Tobacco Endgame: Is It Possible?

Reflecting on World No Tobacco Day 2015, Tom Novotny assesses the tobacco control landscape and considers how a tobacco endgame could be a reality.

Black lives matter: Differential mortality and the racial composition of the U.S. electorate, 1970-2004.

Excess mortality in marginalized populations could be both a cause and an effect of political processes. We estimate the impact of mortality differentials between blacks and whites from 1970 to 2004 on the racial composition of the electorate in the US general election of 2004 and in close statewide elections during the study period. We analyze 73 million US deaths from the Multiple Cause of Death files to calculate: (1) Total excess deaths among blacks between 1970 and 2004, (2) total hypothetical survivor...

Regulating the sale of tobacco in New Zealand: A qualitative analysis of retailers' views and implications for advocacy.

In contrast to the sale of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, the retail availability of tobacco in New Zealand (NZ) is relatively unregulated. Tobacco is almost universally available, and the absence of a licensing scheme for tobacco retailers makes enforcement of retail-level legislation challenging. As a key stakeholder group, the views of tobacco retailers are likely to influence the tobacco retail policies that gain political support. We explored NZ tobacco retailers' views towards mandatory li...

Mortality attributable to secondhand smoke exposure in Spain (2011).

IntroductionThe objective of this study was to assess the mortality attributable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among never smokers in Spain in 2011, after the implementation of the Spanish smoking law.MethodsData on SHS exposure were obtained from a computer-assisted telephone survey carried out in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population. We included the two main diseases widely associated with SHS exposure: lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease. The relative risks for these diseases ...

Single Cigarette Sales: State Differences in FDA Advertising & Labeling Violations, 2014, USA.

Single cigarettes, which are sold without warning labels and often evade taxes, can serve as a gateway for youth smoking. Among other regulations, the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) enforces those prohibiting the sale of single cigarettes through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), and has conducted over 335,661 inspections between 2010 and September 30, 2014, and allocated over $115 million toward state inspections contracts.