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Showing "Tobacco Atlas estimates almost million annual deaths" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 6,200+

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Selection of optimal tobacco cessation medication treatment in patients with cancer.

Tobacco use is responsible for almost half a million deaths per year in the United States, and it accounts for one-third of all cancer deaths. Limited data concerning tobacco treatment among patients with cancer are available. In addition, these patients often have complicated medical histories and are taking multiple medications. No clear, published procedures exist to help the healthcare provider select the proper medication for tobacco cessation in that context.

Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates.

The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneum...

Smokeless tobacco use: A meta-analysis of risk and attributable mortality estimates for India.

Background: Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is widely prevalent in India and Indian subcontinent. Cohort and case-control studies in India and elsewhere report excess mortality due to its use. Objective: The aim was to estimate the SLT use-attributable deaths in males and females, aged 35 years and older, in India. Materials And Methods: Prevalence of SLT use in persons aged 35 years and older was obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in India and population size and deaths in the relevant age-sex gr...

NIH Funding for Tobacco vs Harm from Tobacco.

Previously, the author documented that, even though tobacco-related diseases accounted for 20% of US deaths, in 1995 NIH expended only 1.1% of its budget on tobacco research. The current analysis is a replication test of this result and adds other outcomes and comparison behaviors.

The Impact of inter-survey differences in the definition of current smokeless tobacco use on comparability of US national and state-specific prevalence estimates, 2009-2011.

We assessed how varying definitions of adult smokeless tobacco (SLT) use affected overall prevalence estimates.

State Tobacco Control Program Spending - United States, 2011.

Evidence-based, statewide tobacco control programs that are comprehensive, sustained, and accountable reduce smoking rates and tobacco-related diseases and deaths. States that made larger investments in tobacco prevention and control have seen larger declines in cigarettes sales than the United States as a whole, and the prevalence of smoking has declined faster as spending for tobacco control programs has increased. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs (Best Practices) outlines t...

Tobacco-, Alcohol-, and Drug-Attributable Deaths and Their Contribution to Mortality Disparities in a Cohort of Homeless Adults in Boston.

Objectives. We quantified tobacco-, alcohol-, and drug-attributable deaths and their contribution to mortality disparities among homeless adults. Methods. We ascertained causes of death among 28 033 adults seen at the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program in 2003 to 2008. We calculated population-attributable fractions to estimate the proportion of deaths attributable to tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. We compared attributable mortality rates with those for Massachusetts adults using rate ratios and ...

Low-rank Atlas Image Analyses in the Presence of Pathologies.

We present a common framework, for registering images to an atlas and for forming an unbiased atlas, that tolerates the presence of pathologies such as tumors and traumatic brain injury lesions. This common framework is particularly useful when a sufficient number of protocol-matched scans from healthy subjects cannot be easily acquired for atlas formation and when the pathologies in a patient cause large appearance changes. Our framework combines a low-rank-plus-sparse image decomposition technique with an...

Exploring an effective tobacco prevention programme for Indian adolescents.

Tobacco use is among the most significant public health issues faced by the world today. It is estimated that approximately 5500 adolescents start using tobacco every day in India, adding to the four million youths aged

Deaths Associated with Respiratory Syncytial and Influenza Viruses among Persons ≥5 Years of Age in HIV-Prevalent Area, South Africa, 1998-2009(1).

We estimated deaths attributable to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among persons >5 years of age in South Africa during 1998-2009 by applying regression models to monthly deaths and laboratory surveillance data. Rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years. The mean annual number of seasonal influenza-associated deaths was 9,093 (rate 21.6). Persons >65 years of age and HIV-positive persons accounted for 50% (n = 4,552) and 28% (n = 2,564) of overall seasonal influenza-associated deaths, r...

Sequelae of Foodborne Illness Caused by 5 Pathogens, Australia, Circa 2010.

In Australia circa 2010, 4.1 million (90% credible interval [CrI] 2.3-6.4 million) episodes of foodborne gastroenteritis occurred, many of which might have resulted in sequelae. We estimated the number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths from Guillain-Barré syndrome, hemolytic uremic syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and reactive arthritis that were associated with contaminated food in Australia. Data from published studies, hospital records, and mortality reports were combined with multipliers to...

The Cost of Lost Productivity Due to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder-Related Premature Mortality.

Background Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) have increased mortality as compared to the general population.  ObjectivesTo estimate the productivity losses due to premature mortality of individuals with FASD in Canada in 2011. MethodsA demographic approach with a counterfactual scenario in which nobody in Canada is born with FASD was used. Population estimates were calculated using data on the labour force, unemployment rate, and average weekly wage obtained from Statistics Canada....

The global burden of liver disease: a challenge for methods and for public health.

New Global Burden of Disease estimates for liver cirrhosis, published in BMC Medicine, suggest that cirrhosis caused over a million deaths in 2010, with a further million due to liver cancer and acute hepatitis. Cause-specific mortality data were very sparse for some regions, particularly in Africa, with no relevant mortality data for 58/187 countries. Liver disease involves infectious, malignant and chronic aetiologies with overlapping symptoms. Where available mortality data come from verbal autopsies, se...

Unintentional Home Injuries Across the Life Span: Problems and Solutions.

Home injuries cause more than 30,000 deaths and 12 million nonfatal injuries annually in the United States. They generate an estimated $222 billion in lifetime costs annually. Despite some data limitations in documenting home as the location of an injury, much progress has been made in identifying effective prevention strategies that reduce injury or mitigate risk behaviors. The current interest in public health in the role of housing in health offers unparalleled opportunities for injury prevention profess...

Estimation of brain internal structures by deforming brain atlas using finite element method.

This paper presents a method for estimating the internal structures of a patient brain by deforming a standard brain atlas. Conventional deformation methods need several landmarks from the brain surface contour to fit the atlas to the patient brain shape. However, since the number and shapes of small sulci on the brain surface are different from each other, the determination of the accurate correspondence between small sulcus is difficult for experienced neurosurgeons. Moreover, the relationship between the...

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Tobacco Cessation Among Users of Telephone and Web-Based Interventions - Four States, 2011-2012.

Smoking caused an average of 480,000 deaths per year in the United States from 2005 to 2009, and three in 10 cancer deaths in the United States are tobacco related. Tobacco cessation is a high public health priority, and all states offer some form of tobacco cessation service. Quitlines provide telephone-based counseling services and are an effective intervention for tobacco cessation. In addition to telephone services, 96% of all U.S. quitlines offer Web-based cessation services. Evidence is limited on the...

Gender-Specific Association between Tobacco Smoking and Central Obesity among 0.5 Million Chinese People: The China Kadoorie Biobank Study.

Lifestyle factors are well-known important modifiable risk factors for obesity; the association between tobacco smoking and central obesity, however, is largely unknown in the Chinese population. This study examined the relationship between smoking and central obesity in 0.5 million Chinese adults, a population with a low prevalence of general obesity, but a high prevalence of central obesity.

Foodborne Illness, Australia, Circa 2000 and Circa 2010.

Foodborne disease is a major public health problem worldwide. To examine changes in foodborne illness in Australia, we estimated the incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths attributed to contaminated food circa 2010 and recalculated estimates from circa 2000. Approximately 25% of gastroenteritis cases were caused by contaminated food; to account for uncertainty we used simulation techniques to estimate 90% credible intervals. We estimate that circa 2010, 4.1 million foodborne gastroenteritis cases occurred,...

Estimating Influenza Disease Burden from Population-Based Surveillance Data in the United States.

Annual estimates of the influenza disease burden provide information to evaluate programs and allocate resources. We used a multiplier method with routine population-based surveillance data on influenza hospitalization in the United States to correct for under-reporting and estimate the burden of influenza for seasons after the 2009 pandemic. Five sites of the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) collected data on the frequency and sensitivity of influenza testing during two seasons ...

Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey.

Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi) and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul) using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most w...

The Tobacco Endgame: Is It Possible?

Reflecting on World No Tobacco Day 2015, Tom Novotny assesses the tobacco control landscape and considers how a tobacco endgame could be a reality.

Silicosis Mortality Trends and New Exposures to Respirable Crystalline Silica - United States, 2001-2010.

Silicosis is a preventable occupational lung disease caused by the inhalation of respirable crystalline silica dust and can progress to respiratory failure and death. No effective specific treatment for silicosis is available; patients are provided supportive care, and some patients may be considered for lung transplantation. Chronic silicosis can develop or progress even after occupational exposure has ceased. The number of deaths from silicosis declined from 1,065 in 1968 to 165 in 2004. Hazardous occupat...

Black lives matter: Differential mortality and the racial composition of the U.S. electorate, 1970-2004.

Excess mortality in marginalized populations could be both a cause and an effect of political processes. We estimate the impact of mortality differentials between blacks and whites from 1970 to 2004 on the racial composition of the electorate in the US general election of 2004 and in close statewide elections during the study period. We analyze 73 million US deaths from the Multiple Cause of Death files to calculate: (1) Total excess deaths among blacks between 1970 and 2004, (2) total hypothetical survivor...

MR image synthesis by contrast learning on neighborhood ensembles.

Automatic processing of magnetic resonance images is a vital part of neuroscience research. Yet even the best and most widely used medical image processing methods will not produce consistent results when their input images are acquired with different pulse sequences. Although intensity standardization and image synthesis methods have been introduced to address this problem, their performance remains dependent on knowledge and consistency of the pulse sequences used to acquire the images. In this paper, an ...

Community-based tobacco cessation program among women in Mumbai, India.

Background: Globally tobacco epidemic kills nearly six million people annually. Consumption of tobacco products is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco is addictive; hence, tobacco users need support in quitting. Aims: Providing tobacco cessation services to women in community enabling them to quit tobacco, identifying factors associated with quitting and documenting the processes involved to establish a replicable "model tobacco cessation program." Settings and Design: This is a communi...



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