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The present phase I trial evaluates the feasibility of a postoperative stereotactic hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy delivered in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with adverse pathological features or early biochemical failure. Modern computer-driven technology enables the implementation of ultra-high hypofractionated Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) safely.
Eligible patients for this study are those with:
- Adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with radical prostatectomy (any type of radical prostatectomy is permitted including retropubic, perineal, laparoscopic or robotically assisted; there is no time limit for the date of radical prostatectomy)
- Pathologic (p)T3 disease, positive margin(s), Gleason score 8-10, or seminal vesicle involvement
- Undetectable post-radical prostatectomy PSA that becomes detectable and then increases on 2 subsequent measurements (PSA of > 0.1 - ≤ 2.0 ng/mL)
- Life expectancy . 10 years
- ECOG performance status of 0 -1
- No distant metastases, based on the following workup within 60 days prior to registration
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis
- PSMA/Choline Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to exclude systemic disease in patients with biochemical recurrence
- Patients can be on androgen deprivation therapy
- Ability to understand and willingness to sign a study-specific informed consent prior to study.
Patients enrolled in the study will undergo image-guided, volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (IGRT-VMAT) with state-of-the-art treatment-planning and quality assurance procedures with emphasis on normal tissue sparing and delivery accuracy via the use of devices that ensure stability and beam location reproducibility.
The present study evaluates the feasibility of postoperative stereotactic hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy delivered in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with adverse pathological features or early biochemical failure. Regardless the two settings (adjuvant or salvage), external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer is usually a protracted course, since a total dose of 66 Gy to 70 Gy is needed to be effective. At the typical rate of 1.8 Gy to 2.0 Gy per treatment, it takes approximately 35 treatments over the course of 7 weeks to complete, which is very costly and extremely time consuming. On the other hand, the α/β ratio for prostate cancer has estimated to be as low as 1.5 Gy, significantly lower than the 3 Gy value estimated for late complications.Therefore, the delivery of the same equivalent total dose at 2 Gy/fraction (normalized total dose) to the prostate using a hypofractionation regimen, a part from the practical benefits of reducing the treatment cost and number of sessions for patients to radiotherapy departments, should have a sparing effect on early responding normal tissues through the reduction in the total dose delivered, as well as a reduction in the incidence of late complications. Trials investigating clinical and toxicity outcomes of moderate hypofractionation schedules in the curative setting have reached sufficient follow-up to show similar efficacy and toxicity to conventionally fractionated regimens.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy, or SBRT, is on the shortest end of the hypofractionation spectrum. It is accomplished in a five treatments. With its pinpoint accuracy, many Institutions currently use it for primary treatment at doses up to 9 Gy per treatment, leading to excellent outcomes at least at early time points.Patients enrolled in the study will undergo image-guided, volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (IGRT-VMAT) with state-of-the-art treatment-planning and quality assurance procedures with emphasis on normal tissue sparing and delivery accuracy via the use of devices that ensure stability and beam location reproducibility.A rectal balloon with air filling will be used for anatomical reproducibility, while a urethral catheter loaded with beacon transponders will be used to ensure set-up reproducibility and online target tracking. Previously untreated patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with adverse pathologic findings will be enrolled in a phase I study, consisting of 31 Gy (5 fractions of 6.2 Gy), respectively, delivered over a 1-week period at 5 fractions per week. This dosage corresponds to 68.2 Gy (for an α/βratio estimate of 1.5 Gy), compared to 52.7 Gy (for an α/β estimate of 4 Gy) in a conventional schedule. In those who developed early biochemical failure the radiation schedule will consists in 32.5 Gy (5 fractions of 6.5 Gy), respectively, delivered over a 1-week period at 5 fractions per week. This dosage corresponds to 74.3 Gy (for an α/β ratio estimate of 1.5 Gy), compared to 56.9 Gy (for an α/β estimate of 4 Gy) in a conventional schedule.
Patients will be followed at one month post-treatment and every 3 months for up to 12 months (+/- 4 weeks) and every 6 months thereafter. Acute and chronic toxicity evaluations will focus, though not exclusively, on urinary, rectal and sexual functions and will be assessed through validated EPIC questionnaires. Serum PSA values will be drawn on the same schedule as clinical follow-up. The study will be continuously monitored for a minimum of 5 years. In the event unexpected severe (grade ≥3) toxicities are observed in any one of the treatment regimens, the trial will be terminated according to the standard stopping rules: >3/first 10, and >5/first 25 patients.
Endpoint Classification: Safety Study, Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Prostate Cancer Adenocarcinoma
Published on BioPortfolio: 2016-11-30T15:45:29-0500
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A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.
A synthetic retinoid that is used orally as a chemopreventive against prostate cancer and in women at risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. It is also effective as an antineoplastic agent.
Tissue ablation of the PROSTATE performed by ultrasound from a transducer placed in the RECTUM. The procedure is used to treat prostate cancer (PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA).
An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)