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Respiratory Research

10:27 EDT 20th September 2017 | BioPortfolio

Streptococcus pneumoniae and chronic endobronchial infections in childhood.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the la...

Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstri...

Short communication: Automated detection of behavioral changes from respiratory disease in pre-weaned calves.

Group housing of calves can pose a challenge in identifying respiratory disease; therefore, it is necessary to develop tools that can identify these disease events. In this experiment, pre-weaned calves (n = 30) were housed in groups with an automatic calf feeder and were fitted with an accelerometer. Step activity, lying behaviors, and feeding behaviors were recorded to determine the effect of re...

Analysis of quality of life in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) who give up smoking.

To analyse the impact in COPD patients' quality of life who stop smoking.

Indium (III) induces isolated mitochondrial permeability transition by inhibiting proton influx and triggering oxidative stress.

While Indium's toxicity to organs is realized, its effects on mitochondria are still under investigation. Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is widely accepted in mitochondrial dysfunction approaches and its importance in metal-induced mitochondrial degradation has been proposed. Since mitochondria are respiratory organelles, their interaction with free In(3+) is analyzed to access struct...

Return to work and lost earnings after acute respiratory distress syndrome: a 5-year prospective, longitudinal study of long-term survivors.

Delayed return to work is common after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but has undergone little detailed evaluation. We examined factors associated with the timing of return to work after ARDS, along with lost earnings and shifts in healthcare coverage.

Qualitative interview study of parents' perspectives, concerns and experiences of the management of lower respiratory tract infections in children in primary care.

To explore parents' perspectives, concerns and experiences of the management of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children in primary care.

Take a deep breath and everything will be all right….

Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination during pregnancy and reduced risk of infant acute respiratory infections.

To protect infants from pertussis infection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends women receive the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy. Here, we assessed the association between timing of maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in infants

Are Wireless Electronic Stethoscopes Useful for Respiratory Rate Monitoring During Intravenous Sedation?

Wireless stethoscopes can measure respiratory rate noninvasively and continuously, but there are no reports of their use during dental treatment. This study evaluated the usefulness of wireless stethoscopes during dental procedures requiring intravenous sedation (IVS).

Ultrafine particle transport and deposition in a large scale 17-generation lung model.

To understand how to assess optimally the risks of inhaled particles on respiratory health, it is necessary to comprehend the uptake of ultrafine particulate matter by inhalation during the complex transport process through a non-dichotomously bifurcating network of conduit airways. It is evident that the highly toxic ultrafine particles damage the respiratory epithelium in the terminal bronchiole...

Functional organization of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in cells infected by respiratory syncytial virus.

Infection of cells by respiratory syncytial virus induces the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) where all the components of the viral RNA polymerase complex are concentrated. However, the exact organization and function of these IBs remain unclear. In this study, we use conventional and super-resolution imaging to dissect the internal structure of IBs. We observe that newly syntheti...

Left-sided breast cancer and risks of secondary lung cancer and ischemic heart disease : Effects of modern radiotherapy techniques.

Modern breast cancer radiotherapy techniques, such as respiratory-gated radiotherapy in deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) or volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) have been shown to reduce the high dose exposure of the heart in left-sided breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to comparatively estimate the excess relative and absolute risks of radiation-induced secondary lung can...

Critical illness-associated diaphragm weakness.

Diaphragm weakness is highly prevalent in critically ill patients. It may exist prior to ICU admission and may precipitate the need for mechanical ventilation but it also frequently develops during the ICU stay. Several risk factors for diaphragm weakness have been identified; among them sepsis and mechanical ventilation play central roles. We employ the term critical illness-associated diaphragm ...

Inflammasome Deficiency Makes Pro-resolving Lipid Mediators Great Again.

High-Frequency Oscillation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. The End of the Story?

Bleeding and Thrombosis in Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. Can We Improve Anticoagulation Strategies?

The Tobacco Industry Targets Youth.

Synaptic up-scaling preserves motor circuit output after chronic, natural inactivity.

Neural systems use homeostatic plasticity to maintain normal brain functions and to prevent abnormal activity.  Surprisingly, homeostatic mechanisms that regulate circuit output have mainly been demonstrated during artificial and/or pathological perturbations.  Natural, physiological scenarios that activate these stabilizing mechanisms in neural networks of mature animals remain elusive.  To es...

New opportunities for inhaled therapy for inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system.

The paper considers current approaches to mucoregulatory therapy for various inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. It gives the advantages and disadvantages of common drugs used in their treatment. Emphasis is laid on the use of inhaled hypertonic saline of NaCl in combination with hyaluronic acid (Hyaneb). Clinical examples of its use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute and...

Kagocel in the therapy of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections: Data analysis and systematization from the results of preclinical and clinical trials.

The article provides the summarized data of clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of kagocel used to prevent and treat influenza and acute respiratory viral infections of different etiologies. The results of numerous preclinical and clinical trials suggest that the kagocel substance is highly safe and that it is appropriate to use the drug for the treatment and prevention of influenza...

Transcriptional Response of Respiratory Epithelium to Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

The incidence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease is increasing, but host responses in respiratory epithelium infected with NTM are not fully understood.

Life-Threatening Massive Hemoptysis After Cryoablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

A 59-year-old man developed massive hemoptysis, 1 month after undergoing cryoablation procedure for atrial fibrillation. He underwent emergent bronchoscopy that revealed massive, active bleeding with clots requiring repeated suctioning, epinephrine, and cold saline injection. The source of bleeding was identified in a follow-up bronchoscopy performed few days later-a 2×3 cm area of ulceration of ...

Primary Outcomes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Research.

Beneficial Effects of Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure: Caution With Findings From Meta-Analyses.

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